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Romanos IV Diogenes

Romanos IV Diogenes



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Romanos IV Diogenes ruled the Byzantine Empire from 1068 to 1071 CE. He was a military emperor, and his policies and campaigns served to shore up Byzantine defenses against the Seljuk Turks. However, in the aftermath of the Byzantine defeat at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 CE, the civil war that emerged between the treacherous Doukas family and Romanos distracted and greatly weakened the Byzantine army and allowed the Turks to invade and conquer the key Byzantine territory of Anatolia.

Eudokia & Romanos

When Constantine X Doukas (r. 1059-1067 CE) died, his sons were still young. The older son, Michael VII (r. 1071-1078 CE), was 19 and could have ruled in his own right. However, Michael seemed to have had little interest in ruling and let his mother, Constantine's widow Eudokia Makrembolitissa, be the de facto ruler of the Byzantine Empire. On Constantine's death, Eudokia had sworn on the Trinity, prophets, apostles, saints, and everyone else who was Christian and holy that she would not even think about remarrying. Constantine had ordered this to prevent a figure such as Romanos I Lekapenos (r. 920-944 CE) or Nikephoros II Phokas (r. 963-969 CE) from emerging as a 'protector' of his sons, which would be especially easy if someone married Eudokia.

Almost everyone accepted Romanos, but Constantine's brother, John Doukas, saw the potential danger to his brother's dynasty.

However, the pressures of rule caught up with Eudokia. The raids by Seljuk Turks intensified, and one marauding band under the Turkish general Afshin sacked the major central Anatolian city of Caesarea, and Byzantine defenses were still weak from Constantine's stingy military financing policy. A general had to become emperor if the Byzantines would be saved from these dangerous menaces.

So entered Romanos Diogenes. Romanos was from a prominent military family, the son of Constantine Diogenes, who had been an important general before he was imprisoned by Romanos III Argyros (r. 1028-1034 CE) for conspiring with the then princess Theodora (later empress in her own right, r. 1055-1056 CE). Romanos Diogenes was the doux, or duke, of Serdica, but he had plotted with Hungary and was sentenced to death. However, Eudokia and several of the judges thought they had found the emperor the Byzantine Empire needed. Given that the sources describe Romanos as handsome and muscular, it is even possible that Eudokia had fallen for the general. On January 1, 1068 CE, Romanos married Eudokia and became emperor, promising to protect the rights of the Doukai princes, much like Nikephoros II Phokas promised to protect the Macedonian princes a century earlier. Almost everyone now accepted Romanos, but Constantine's brother, John Doukas, saw the potential danger to his brother's dynasty. His enmity for Romanos would lead to problems later in Romanos' reign.

To the East

Constantine X's reign had left the eastern frontier in a disastrous state. No major Byzantine army had been deployed there for over a decade, and the steady incursions of the Seljuk Turks highlighted Byzantine feebleness. Isaac I Komnenos (r. 1057-1059 CE) might have been able to right the ship when the first signs of decline were appearing, but under Constantine, the Byzantine Empire measurably slipped. Isaac had ruled alone, while Romanos now had to share power with the Doukai and combat the jealousies of John Doukas.

When Romanos headed east to rally the troops, he found them in a pitiful state. Contemporary historian and government minister Michael Attaleiates recounted that “it was something to see the famous units and their commanders now composed of just a few men, and these bent over by poverty and lacking proper weapons and war horses” (Attaleiates 103). Romanos defeated a raid on Pontus along the Black Sea before heading into Syria to counter the main thrust of Seljuk Turk interest.

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The Emirate of Aleppo had escaped Byzantine vassalage sometime after the reign of Romanos III Argyros, but the ruling Mirdasid dynasty continued to fight among itself and remained weak. The Seljuk Turks had started to use weak Aleppo as a staging ground to attack the important Byzantine province around the major city of Antioch, and they were more interested in expanding into Syria than further north. Romanos immediately captured the city of Hierapolis (modern Manbij) on the border of northern Syria, but his forces were blockaded by Turkish and local Aleppo forces before routing the Muslim forces the next day. Romanos then took the city of 'Artah across from Antioch before returning to Constantinople. While it seemed his campaign was a success, the Turkish general Afshin had slipped through Byzantine defenses and sacked the major central Anatolian city of Amorium. The mobility of the Seljuk Turks was perhaps their greatest asset, and it made it difficult for the Byzantines to keep up. Knowing he could do nothing, for the time being, Romanos continued on home to Constantinople.

Romanos' campaign was still considered a success: Syria had been partially restrained, and Byzantine morale was starting to recover. But instead of being able to follow up on this success immediately, Romanos had to face the rebellion of Roger Crépin. Roger was a Norman mercenary, and the Byzantines had hired him and his band to fight under their banner in Armenia. Roger rebelled and seized the tax reserves in Armenia. He fought off five combined Byzantine armies before eventually surrendering to Romanos. However, his mercenaries continued to raid other parts of Byzantium. While the Byzantine army was mostly composed of native soldiers from the reigns of Heraclius (r. 610-641 CE) through Basil II (r. 976-1025 CE), the emperors had increasingly turned to mercenaries. With the old system of domestic recruitment in shambles, Romanos had no choice but to recruit mercenaries as well. They tended to be highly disloyal and were quite expensive. Roger was no exception but actually the rule. His rebellion was the first sign of the fight to come: Western Europeans and Turks fighting for the ever-shrinking corpse of Byzantium.

The next two years entailed Romanos chasing various bands of Turks around Anatolia. He met with mixed success: he would defeat one band only to have another nearly simultaneously sack a city somewhere else in the Byzantine Empire. The areas around Melitene became so devastated that Romanos could not camp an army there. Although by resisting the Turks Romanos was doing more than Constantine X, the end result was a war of attrition akin to those earlier border wars between the Byzantines and Muslims between the 7th and 10th centuries CE.

Troubles at Home

While Romanos was out campaigning, Eudokia had born him one son, Leo, and another, Nikephoros, would come in the next year. This posed obvious problems to the Doukai. Although Nikephoros II had married Basil II and Constantine VIII's mother Theophano, she did not bear him any children so there was no direct threat to Basil and Constantine eventually becoming emperor. In comparison, there were now sons of both Constantine and Romanos and both had viable claims to the Byzantine throne.

There were internecine rivalries & alliances between the elites to seize or maintain their hold on power.

To counter the Doukai, Romanos established ties with the family of Isaac I Komnenos, the Komnenoi. Romanos appointed Manuel Komnenos, the nephew of Isaac I, as the commander of that year's expedition against the Turks while he stayed home. However, the Turks defeated Manuel at Sebasteia and captured him. Although Arisighi, a rebellious brother-in-law of the Turkish sultan Alp Arslan (r. 1063-1072 CE), let Manuel go. Arisighi also provided information on Seljuk tactics to Romanos, which were useful for the coming battles with Alp Arslan.

The alliance between the Komnenoi and Romanos versus the Doukai contributed to the popular modern historical belief that there was a competition between the elite of the capital and the military elite of the provinces. However, this is not entirely accurate. While the Doukai were the reigning dynasty, the family had its start as provincial elites just like Romanos and the Komnenoi. A more accurate description would be that there were internecine rivalries and alliances between the elites, no matter where they were based, to seize or maintain their hold on power.

Battle of Manzikert

In 1070 CE, Romanos had several forts constructed in Anatolia to better fortify the Byzantine Empire's borders. Following up on his success in Syria and at least dissuading Turks from raiding deep into the interior of Anatolia, Romanos decided it was time to defeat the Turks where they had first invaded his empire, in Armenia. Romanos gathered an army and headed off towards the Armenian provinces.

Meanwhile, Alp Arslan, the sultan of the Seljuk Turks, had failed to take Edessa from the Byzantines and Aleppo from its Mirdasid emirs. But as soon as he heard that Romanos was moving toward Armenia, he gathered his army and headed there too.

Upon arriving in Armenia, Romanos thought that he could take the city of Manzikert with a smaller force, and so sent the larger and superior part of his army to Khliat under Joseph Tarchaneiotes to take it as well. Romanos did take Manzikert with ease, but by that time Alp Arslan was in the vicinity. Romanos, believing it was only a smaller force, sent a small force under Nicephorus Bryennius to fend the Turks off. Diogenes sent in reinforcements under Nikephoros Basilakes, but they followed Alp Arslan's troops, feigning a retreat, too far and were tricked and captured. Romanos attempted another sally, but when the Turks started firing arrows everyone fled for cover. The Byzantines eventually fired back, and the Turks formed lines around the Byzantine camp, effectively cutting them off from the larger Byzantine force under Tarchaneiotes and putting the emperor and the Byzantines in a very dangerous position.

Alp Arslan sent envoys to negotiate peace, but Romanos instead decided to settle things in battle, believing that Tarchaneiotes' forces wouldn't arrive in time. Romanos did push the Turks back, but when he gave a signal to regroup at camp when they had advanced too far, the signal was misinterpreted by soldiers at the rear as a sign that the emperor had fallen in battle. According to some, the rumor that Romanos had been slain in battle was started by Andronikos Doukas, the son of John Doukas. He obviously had an interest in getting Romanos out of the way. The forces in the vanguard with Romanos were left high and dry and were attacked with renewed vigor by the Turks. Romanos had made the mistake of splitting his army and not maintaining active scouts to notify him that Alp Arslan was approaching. He paid the price for it; while Andronikos retreated, Romanos was captured by Alp Arslan.

Emperor No More

In the aftermath of Manzikert, it was unclear to the Byzantines whether Romanos was dead or alive. Alp Arslan asked Romanos what he would do to him if their positions were reversed. Alp Arslan respected Romanos' candor when he said he would have had him cruelly killed. Romanos concluded a treaty with Alp Arslan, suing for peace in exchange for ceding parts of Armenia, tribute, and a marriage alliance. In exchange, he was released along with his men.

Manzikert had not been a disaster in pure military terms, since the majority of the army under Tarchaneiotes was intact, as were the majority of troops that had retreated from Romanos' vanguard when they thought he was dead. However, the most senior military leaders, such as Andronikos, rushed to Constantinople to play kingmaker in the capital. So the Byzantine armies, while intact, were leaderless. The coffers of Byzantium were bare. Romanos, although alive and back in his empire, had lost his military prestige at Manzikert. He had been brought in to provide military victory, but he had failed.

The Doukai lost no time in declaring Romanos deposed. John and Andronikos also deposed Eudokia since she was the one who had brought Romanos on as emperor and was the mother of his children. Michael VII Doukas was declared the sole emperor. John's other son, Constantine Doukas, and Roger Crépin, the Norman mercenary who had been imprisoned by Romanos for rebelling, led an army into Anatolia to face off against Romanos' supporters. Constantine defeated Romanos' supporters under Theodoros Alyates and had him blinded. Romanos retreated to Cappadocia, where he was reinforced by the doux of Antioch, Chatatourios. They then retreated again to the mountains of Cilicia. While Cilicia would provide the foundation for a state under Philaretos, the Crusaders, and Armenians, it would not do so for Romanos.

The Doukai offered him amnesty, but Romanos refused to give up his imperial title. Andronikos and Roger defeated Chatatourios in battle and surrounded Romanos at Adana. Romanos failed to obtain Seljuk help and surrendered in exchange for a promise from the Doukai that no harm would come to him if he became a monk. However, the Doukai ineptly blinded Romanos, and he died from his wounds on August 4, 1072 CE.

No matter whether John or Michael VII was behind the blinding, or even if it were for the good of the Byzantine Empire, as the contemporary historian and minister Michael Psellos claimed, it discredited Michael's regime at a time when it could ill-afford to suffer any setbacks. It was not Manzikert itself that allowed the Turks to conquer Anatolia; instead, it was the civil war caused by the Doukai. Regardless of their actions, the Turks would have seen the weakness of the eastern Byzantine frontier after Manzikert. What would have been just a setback became a decisive blow against the Byzantine Empire and the end of its control over all of Anatolia, its key territory since the reign of Heraclius in the 7th century CE.

Tragic Memory

Attaleiates described Romanos as a quintessential tragic hero. His reign was a failure not because of Romanos himself, but because of circumstances. He had tried his best and did a relatively good job up until Andronikos' betrayal at Manzikert. Many other emperors had been deposed, but perhaps none elicited sorrow like Romanos. The consequences of the civil war and Romanos' death were catastrophic to the Byzantine Empire, and it would never recover from the damage caused by the jealousy of the Doukai.


Romanos IV Diogenes

Romanos (or RomanusIV Diogenes (Greek: Ρωμανός Δ΄ Διογένης, Rōmanos IV Diogenēs) was a member of the Byzantine military aristocracy who, after his marriage to the widowed empress Eudokia Makrembolitissa, was crowned Byzantine emperor and reigned from 1068 to 1071. During his reign he was determined to halt the decline of the Byzantine military and to stop Turkish incursions into the Byzantine Empire, but in 1071 he was captured and his army routed at the Battle of Manzikert. While still captive he was overthrown in a palace coup, and when released he was quickly defeated and detained by members of the Doukas family. In 1072, he was blinded and sent to a monastery where he died of his wounds.


Contents

Romanos Diogenes was the son of Constantine Diogenes (died 1032) and a member of a prominent and powerful Cappadocian family, [1] connected by birth to most of the great aristocratic nobles in Asia Minor. [2] His mother was a daughter of Basil Argyros, brother of the emperor Romanos III. [3] Courageous and generous, but also impetuous, Romanos rose with distinction in the army due to his military talents, and he served on the Danubian frontier. [4] However, he was eventually convicted of attempting to usurp the throne of the sons of Constantine X Doukas in 1067. [1] While waiting to receive his sentence from the regent Eudokia Makrembolitissa, he was summoned into her presence and advised that she had pardoned him and that she had furthermore chosen him to be her husband and the guardian of her sons as emperor. [5] She took this course of action primarily due to her concern that unless she managed to find a powerful husband, she could easily lose the regency to any unscrupulous noble, and also because she was infatuated with the popular Romanos. [1] Her decision was met with little protest as the Seljuk Turks had overrun much of Cappadocia and had even taken the important city of Caesarea, meaning that the army needed to be placed under the command of an able and energetic general. [2]

The problem Romanos and Eudokia had in executing this plan was that Eudokia's deceased husband, Constantine X, had made her swear an oath never to remarry. [6] She approached the Patriarch John Xiphilinos and convinced him both to hand over the written oath she had signed to this effect, and to have him pronounce that he was in favour of a second marriage for the good of the state. [1] The Senate agreed, and on January 1, 1068 Romanos married the empress and was crowned Emperor of the Romans. [1]


Romanos IV Diogenes (1068–1071)

Romanos was outflanked in his short reign and in all parts of his life: in his family by his wife and the Doukas clan, in his governing by his own shortcomings in administration and authority, and, most importantly, in the field by the Turks at Mantzikert in 1071. Brought in to restore the army, Romanos's position was resented by the Doukas clan who felt he was an outsider, neglecting the rights of Michael VII. In order to protect the Byzantine possessions in Asia, he neglected Italy where the Normans under Robert Guiscard captured Bari, the last Byzantine town, in 1071. Romanos campaigned in 1068 and 1069 in eastern Anatolia and Armenia but was unable to prevernt he Turks from raiding into the empire. In 1071 Romanos confronted the army of the Seljuk sultan Alp Arslan at Mantzikert in Armenia. His defeat and capture, for which a large amount of responsibility falls to Andronikos Doukas’s premature departure from the field of battle, led to his deposition in abstentia. The caesar John Doukas, brother of Constantine X and uncle of Michael VII, placed his nephew on the throne. Thereafter Romanos, though released from captivity by the Turkish Sultan Alp Arslan, was unable to regain his former place. The civil war was brief, and Romanos surrendered and was blinded on John Doukas’s orders.

The seals and coins of Romanos’s reign are the most cluttered examples from the whole Byzantine period. During Romanos’s reign, Constantine’s third son, Andronikos, was associated in rule, and on his seals and coins the nominal senior emperor appears vastly outnumbered by the family of Constantine X. Romanos and Eudokia appear either side of Christ, who blesses them. On the reverse the three sons of Constantine X are shown in their imperial regalia. Although interpretation of the seals follows the convention of placing the senior emperor on the obverse, the sides are reversed when considering the coins, the concavity of which allows us to determine which was the top die.

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Stamboom Homs » Romanos IV Diogenes Byzantine Emperor (± 1020-1072)

Romano IV Diógenes, (en griego: Ρωμανός Δ΄ Διογένης, Rōmanos IV Diogenēs Cappadocia, ? - Isla de Proti, 29 de junio de 1072) emperador de Bizancio del 1068 al 1071, conocido sobre todo por su derrota en la batalla de Manzikert.

Romano pertenecía a una distinguida familia de Capadocia, y se había distinguido como militar. Subió al trono al contraer matrimonio con Eudocia, viuda de Constantino X Ducas. Fue coronado emperador el 1 de enero de 1068.

Tras su coronación, dirigió tres exitosas campañas contra los selyúcidas en el este de Anatolia, expulsándoles al este del Éufrates. En marzo de 1071 emprendió una nueva campaña con un ejército de unos 60.000 ó 70.000 hombres. Dejó la mayor parte de ellos a las órdenes de su general José Tarcaniotes, y él, con el resto de las tropas, se apoderó de la fortaleza de Manzikert. Poco después se enfrentó con el ejército selyúcida, mandado por Alp Arslan, en tanto que Tarcaniotes, por tración o por cobardía, escapaba en lugar de prestarle auxilio. Romano fue vencido y hecho prisionero.

Fue conducido a presencia de Alp Arslan, quien le ordenó besar el suelo ante él, y le puso simbólicamente un pie sobre el cuello. Sin embargo, después fue tratado como un huésped, y firmó con el sultán un tratado de paz, por el cual pasaban a control selyúcida las ciudades de Manzikert, Hierópolis, Edesa y Antioquía, y Bizancio se comprometía a pagarle un oneroso tributo. Después, el emperador fue dejado en libertad.

Sin embargo, en Constantinopla, una conspiración entronizó a Miguel, hijo de Constantino X Ducas y de Eudocia. Aunque Romano trató de reunir lo que quedaba de su ejército, fue derrotado pro el general Andrónico Ducas, y aceptó renunciar al trono y retirarse a un monasterio, a cambio de que fuera respetada su vida. Esta promesa, sin embargo, no fue respetada: se le sacaron los ojos y fue paseado sobre una bestia de carga durante varios días. Murió en la isla de Proti, en un monasterio que él mismo había ordenado construir, a consecuencia de la infección de sus heridas, pero antes, su enemigo, el cronista Miguel Psellos, le escribió una cruel carta felicitándole por su buena suerte al haber sido cegado, ya que era seguramente porque Dios le había encontrado digno de una luz superior.

Durante su reinado los normandos conquistaron Bari, lo que significó el final de la presencia bizantina en Italia.

Norwich, John Julius: Breve historia de Bizancio. Editorial Cátedra, 2000. ISBN 84-376-1819-3.

Predecesor: Constantino X Ducas Emperador del Imperio Bizantino 1068 - 1071

Do you have supplementary information, corrections or questions with regards to Romanos IV Diogenes Byzantine Emperor?
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Maximum test » Romanos IV Diogenes Byzantine emperor (1020-1072)

a) ROMANOS Diogenes (-Prote Monastery Summer 1072). Mikhael Glykas names "imperator Romanus Vestarches, Constantini Diogenis filius"[681]. Skylitzes records that "Romanus Constantinus Diogenis filius…patricius" was created "dux Sardices…bestarches" by Emperor Konstantinos Doukas[682]. Having rebelled against Empress Evdokia after the death of Emperor Konstantinos X Doukas in 1067, Psellos implies that the empress was subsequently obliged to marry him to preserve her position[683]. He succeeded in 1 Jan 1068 as Emperor ROMANOS IV after marrying Empress Evdokia. After the conquest of Armenia, the Seljuk Turks intensified their raids into Byzantine territory, as far as Neocæsaria and Amorium in 1068, Iconium in 1069 and Chonæ in 1070[684]. Emperor Romanos was defeated by the Seljuks 20 Nov 1068, and again at Manzikert 19 Aug 1071 where he was captured. In the same year, Bari, the last Byzantine possession in southern Italy, fell to the Normans. Although Emperor Romanos was freed by the Seljuks after promising monetary tribute, he had been overthrown during his imprisonment by his stepson Emperor Mikhael VII Doukas. When he regained Constantinople, he was defeated and fled to Cilicia to regroup his forces, but was defeated once more. He was forced to become a monk, but was afterwards betrayed and blinded, dying soon afterwards from his injuries at the monastery on the island of Prote. Nikeforos Bryennios records that "Diogenem" was blinded and sent "in monasterium. in Prota insula" where he died soon afterwards from his injuries[685].

'''m''' firstly ([1045/50]) [[ANNA] Alusiane, daughter of ALUSIAN [of Bulgaria] & his wife --- ([1030]-before 1065). Her parentage and marriage are deduced from Skylitzes who names "bestarches Samuel Aluisianus Bulgarus, imperatoris uxoris frater"[686], although it is curious to note that she is still referred to as "imperatoris uxoris" in a passage which refers to events after her husband’s accession and second marriage and therefore after her death. It should be noted that an alternative interpretation is that the passage refers to the wife of Samuil. The date for this marriage is estimated from the couple's son Konstantinos Diogenes leaving two known children when he was killed in battle in 1074.]

'''m''' secondly (1 Jan 1068) as her second husband, EVDOKIA Makrembolitissa, widow of Emperor KONSTANTINOS X, daughter of IOANNES Makrembolites & his wife --- (-1096). Psellos records the second marriage of "Eudocia" and "Romanus, the son of Diogenes"[687]. The primary source which confirms her parentage has not been identified. On the overthrow of Emperor Romanos IV, she ruled jointly with her son, but was soon overthrown and confined to a convent. Emperor Romanos IV & his first wife had [three] children:

Romano IV Diógenes, (en griego: Ρωμανός Δ΄ Διογένης, Rōmanos IV Diogenēs Cappadocia, ? - Isla de Proti, 29 de junio de 1072) emperador de Bizancio del 1068 al 1071, conocido sobre todo por su derrota en la batalla de Manzikert.

Romano pertenecía a una distinguida familia de Capadocia, y se había distinguido como militar. Subió al trono al contraer matrimonio con Eudocia, viuda de Constantino X Ducas. Fue coronado emperador el 1 de enero de 1068.

Tras su coronación, dirigió tres exitosas campañas contra los selyúcidas en el este de Anatolia, expulsándoles al este del Éufrates. En marzo de 1071 emprendió una nueva campaña con un ejército de unos 60.000 ó 70.000 hombres. Dejó la mayor parte de ellos a las órdenes de su general José Tarcaniotes, y él, con el resto de las tropas, se apoderó de la fortaleza de Manzikert. Poco después se enfrentó con el ejército selyúcida, mandado por Alp Arslan, en tanto que Tarcaniotes, por tración o por cobardía, escapaba en lugar de prestarle auxilio. Romano fue vencido y hecho prisionero.

Fue conducido a presencia de Alp Arslan, quien le ordenó besar el suelo ante él, y le puso simbólicamente un pie sobre el cuello. Sin embargo, después fue tratado como un huésped, y firmó con el sultán un tratado de paz, por el cual pasaban a control selyúcida las ciudades de Manzikert, Hierópolis, Edesa y Antioquía, y Bizancio se comprometía a pagarle un oneroso tributo. Después, el emperador fue dejado en libertad.

Sin embargo, en Constantinopla, una conspiración entronizó a Miguel, hijo de Constantino X Ducas y de Eudocia. Aunque Romano trató de reunir lo que quedaba de su ejército, fue derrotado pro el general Andrónico Ducas, y aceptó renunciar al trono y retirarse a un monasterio, a cambio de que fuera respetada su vida. Esta promesa, sin embargo, no fue respetada: se le sacaron los ojos y fue paseado sobre una bestia de carga durante varios días. Murió en la isla de Proti, en un monasterio que él mismo había ordenado construir, a consecuencia de la infección de sus heridas, pero antes, su enemigo, el cronista Miguel Psellos, le escribió una cruel carta felicitándole por su buena suerte al haber sido cegado, ya que era seguramente porque Dios le había encontrado digno de una luz superior.

Durante su reinado los normandos conquistaron Bari, lo que significó el final de la presencia bizantina en Italia.

Norwich, John Julius: Breve historia de Bizancio. Editorial Cátedra, 2000. ISBN 84-376-1819-3.

Predecesor: Constantino X Ducas Emperador del Imperio Bizantino 1068 - 1071

Romanus IV Diogenes (Greek: Ρωμανός Δ Διογένης, Roman IV Diogenes Cappadocia? - Proti Island, June 29, 1072) Emperor of Byzantium 1068 to 1071, best known for his defeat at the Battle of Manzikert .

Roman belonged to a distinguished family of Cappadocia, and had distinguished himself as a soldier. He took the throne to marry Eudocia, widow of Constantine X Ducas. He was crowned emperor on January 1, 1068.

After his coronation, directed three successful campaigns against the Seljuks in eastern Anatolia, expelling the east of the Euphrates. In March 1071 began a new campaign with an army of about 60,000 or 70,000 men. He left most of them under the command of his general José Tarchaneiotes, and he, with the rest of the troops, seized the fortress of Manzikert. Shortly thereafter faced the Seljuk army, commanded by Alp Arslan, while Tarchaneiotes, by concentration or cowardice, rather than lending escaped assistance. Romano was defeated and taken prisoner.

He was taken into the presence of Alp Arslan, who ordered him to kiss the ground before him, and symbolically put a foot on the neck. However, after he was treated like a guest, and the Sultan signed a peace treaty, by which Seljuk controlled passing the cities of Manzikert, Hierapolis, Edessa and Antioch, and Byzantium agreed to pay a heavy tribute. After the emperor was released.

However, in Constantinople enthroned conspiracy Miguel, son of Constantine X Ducas and Eudocia. Although Romano tried to gather what was left of his army was defeated Gen. pro Andronicus Ducas, and agreed to give up the throne and retire to a monastery, in exchange for his life was respected. This promise, however, was not respected: he gouged out his eyes and he was carried on a beast of burden for several days. He died on the island of Proti, in a monastery he had ordered built as a result of infection from his wounds, but before his enemy, the chronicler Michael Psellos, wrote a harsh letter congratulating him on his good fortune to have been blinded, as it was surely because God had found worthy of a higher light.

During his reign the Normans conquered Bari, which marked the end of Byzantine presence in Italy.

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Romano Diógenes era filho de Constantino Diógenes e membro de uma distinta família da Capadócia. Foi sucessivamente promovido no exército bizantino por serviços prestados, até ter sido condenado por uma conspiração para afastar do trono os filhos de Constantino X Ducas em 1067. Enquanto esperava para ser executado foi chamado à presença da imperatriz regente Eudóxia Macrembolitisa, que ficou de tal modo fascinada por ele que o perdoou e casou-se com ele a 1 de Janeiro de 1068.

Com este casamento Romano IV tornou-se co-imperador, lado a lado com Miguel VII Ducas , Constâncio Ducas e Andrónico Ducas, embora fosse o imperador sénior. Conduziu com êxito três campanhas contra os turcos seljúcidas, repelindo-os para além do Eufrates nos anos de 1068–1069. Em 1071 Romano IV preparou uma expedição em larga escala contra a fortaleza seljúcida de Manziquerta. Apesar de numerosas, as suas forças não tinham todas o mesmo grau de preparação e incluíam uma grande quantidade de mercenários.

Ao cabo de alguns sucessos iniciais na campanha, Romano IV travou a batalha de Manziquerta a 26 de Agosto de 1071. Ficou isolado do corpo principal do seu exército, o qual se pôs em fuga julgando morto o imperador. A retirada desordenada do exército bizantino deu azo a que o sultão seljúcida Alparslano capturasse Romano IV e infligisse uma derrota desastrosa ao exército deste.

Romano IV foi tratado respeitosamente pelo seu captor, que tinha dificuldade em acreditar que o guerreiro sujo e ferido trazido à sua presença fosse o imperador bizantino. Alparslano foi sempre cordial com Romano, e libertou-o em troca de um tratado de paz vantajoso e de um grande resgate.

Gibbon, no seu "Declínio e Queda do Império Romano", reproduz uma conversa entre Alparslano e Romano IV. Segundo Gibbon, quando o sultão perguntou ao imperador o que devia fazer-se com ele, o imperador respondeu: "se és cruel, tiras-me a vida se dás ouvidos ao orgulho, arrastar-me-ás preso às rodas da tua quadriga se sabes o que melhor para ti, aceitarás que te pague um resgate e mandar-me-ás para casa." Quando o sultão lhe perguntou qual teria sido o tratamento que receberia se tivesse sido ele o derrotado, Romano disse que o mandaria chicotear. O sultão deu então ao imperador uma palestra sobre a piedade cristã, e disse que não seguiria o exemplo dle, mas sim que lhe perdoaria e trataria como competia a monarcas."[1] John Julius Norwich, em "Bzyantium: The Apogee" também afirma que esta conversa, ou algo de materialmente equivalente, terá sido conservado pelos cronistas coevos. [2] Mateus de Edessa, um historiador arménio, também faz menção desta conversa entre o imperador e o sultão.

Enquanto o imperador estava em cativeiro, a oposição decidira aproveitar a situação ao máximo. O César João Ducas e Miguel Pselo confinaram Eudóxia num mosteiro e levaram facilmente Miguel VII Ducas a declarar a deposição de Romano IV Diógenes. Antes que Romano conseguisse reunir apoios foi atacado e derrotado por Constantino e por Andrónico Ducas, filhos do César João Ducas. Cercado por Andrónico Ducas numa fortaleza da Cilícia, Romano rendeu-se depois de prometer abdicar de todas as suas pretensões ao trono e de se retirar para um mosteiro. Enquanto estava a ser levado para Constantinopla, Romano foi ainda assim cegado (29 de Junho de 1072) e exilado na ilha de Prote. Os seus olhos foram tão brutalmente vazados que Romano morreu pouco depois da infecção dos ferimentos que lhe foram infligidos.

Durante o seu reinado as forças de Roberto Guiscardo tomaram Bari, em 1071, e o império bizantino perdeu as suas últimas posições em Itália. Incapaz de impedir os acontecimentos, Romano IV decidira dedicar-se aos problemas que afligiam o Império a Oriente.

Com a sua primeira mulher, Ana, uma filha de Alusiano da Bulgária, Romano IV Diógenes teve pelo menos um filho:


Romanos IV Diogenes

Romanos IV Diogenes (Greek: Ρωμανός Δ΄ Διογένης), also known as Romanus IV, was a member of the Byzantine military aristocracy who, after his marriage to the widowed empress Eudokia Makrembolitissa, was crowned Byzantine Emperor and reigned from 1068 to 1071. During his reign he was determined to halt the decline of the Byzantine military and to stop Turkish incursions into the Byzantine Empire, but in 1071 he was captured and his army routed at the Battle of Manzikert. While still captive he was overthrown in a palace coup, and when released he was quickly defeated and detained by members of the Doukas family . Read more on Wikipedia

Since 2007, the English Wikipedia page of Romanos IV Diogenes has received more than 313,048 page views. His biography is available in 48 different languages on Wikipedia (up from 46 in 2019) . Romanos IV Diogenes is the 657th most popular politician (up from 759th in 2019) , the 99th most popular biography from Turkey (up from 115th in 2019) and the 59th most popular Turkish Politician.

Romanos IV Diogenes was the Byzantine emperor from 1068 to 1071. He is most famous for his military campaigns against the Seljuk Turks, which resulted in the recapture of much territory in Asia Minor.


Romanos IV Diogenes’s Greatest Enemies Were The Seljuks

During his relatively short reign, Romanos IV Diogenes undertook four campaigns against the Seljuk Turks. The first was made in 1068 AD. After just three months he managed to assemble a force of roughly 35,000 men and marched them against the Seljuks and their Arab allies from Syrian Aleppo. These two forces had been raiding and devastating Armenia, Cilicia, Cappadocia, and Georgia.

Romanos marched south with his army and eventually managed to inflict two major defeats against the Turks in the battles of Sebaste and Ieropolis. However, neither of these victories were enough to end the Seljuk threat, as they rapidly fled and avoided a head on collision with the Byzantines. The Turkish cavalry moved so rapidly across the country that Romanos could not possibly react in time. Thus, the Seljuks raided Neocaesarea and Amorium before moving on. With the onset of winter, Romanos IV Diogenes returned to Alexandretta, and eventually to Constantinople.

In April 1069 AD, Romanos launched another campaign. His new attempt saw him marching towards Caesarea where the first clash with the Seljuks occurred. As the Byzantine army was raising their camp, they were surprised by an attack from the Turks. However, Romanos’ skilled command helped them to gain a victory against all odds.

Still, their rapid movements did not give Romanos the chance to strike a decisive victory he yearned for, leaving him to waste his efforts in frustration. Eventually he caught up with the Seljuks at Tarsus, the capital of Cilicia, where his armies won decisively. The Seljuks were forced to flee to Aleppo, and Romanos made a peace with the Turkish sultan Alp Arslan. Nevertheless, he did not manage to defeat the Seljuks, and this caused some discontent in Constantinople. Even though peace was made, a major victory was not.

Romanos wasted most of his campaign chasing the fast-moving Seljuks. A contemporary account of one of his opponents at the time who was present at the campaign perfectly sums it up: “ Romanos didn’t know where he was marching to, or what was he to do.”

The third campaign, in 1070 AD, was not led by Romanos. The increasing political intrigues at the court forced him to remain put in Constantinople. He had to face the events in other parts of the empire, and to focus on bringing new reforms that would further contribute to the stabilization of the empire. Some of the reforms he brought were especially disliked by his political opponents and the members of the nobility, and eventually the common folk.

All the reforms he made were for the good of the empire. First he reduced unnecessary court expenses, lavish ceremonies, and decoration of the capital. These funds had to be shifted to more important expenses. Public salaries of court nobles were also reduced, along with the overall profits of prominent traders in Constantinople. Romanos focused much of his energy and budget on improving the Byzantine army. This made him unpopular with provincial governors, whose power became increasingly less independent.

The Battle of Manzikert, fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Empire on 26 August 1071 near Manzikert, was a decisive defeat for the Byzantine army and ended in the capture of Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes. (O.Mustafin / CC0 1.0 )


Constantine Diogenes

1. KONSTANTINOS Diogenes (-[1032]). He originated from Cappadocia. Cedrenus records that "Constantinum Diogenem" succeeded "Theophylacto Botaneita" in "prætura Thessalonicensi", dated to early 1015 from the context, and that Emperor Basileios II sent him "in regionem Moglenorum" to defeat Gavriil Radomir Tsar of the Bulgarians[672]. Zonaras records that "Constantinus Diogenes Sirmii pr󦿬tus qui et Bulgariæ dux appellatus est" brought Bulgaria under Byzantine control, dated from the context to around the time of the death of Emperor Basileios II (1025)[673]. He was appointed katepan or military governor of Thessaloniki: an undated seal records 𠇌onstantin protoproຍre anthypatos. patrice. catépan de Thessalonique. Diogène”[674]. Other sources accord the title doux to Konstantinos Diogenes. Cedrenus records that "Thessalonicensium duce Constantino Diogene" defeated "Joannis et eius patruelem" [Ivan Vladislav Tsar of the Bulgarians] 9 Jan "indictione 15"[675]. Zonaras records that "Constantinum Diogenes", who had escaped "in Illyricum", was recaptured, dated to [1032] from the context[676]. Cedrenus records that "Constantinus Diogenes…Sirmii pr󦿬tus� Thessalonicæ dux" was sent to Thrace where he threw himself from a tower[677]. Psellos records that he "had been arrested on a charge of attempted revolution during the reign of Romanus Argyrus and had committed suicide by hurling himself over a precipice"[678].

m --- Argyre, daughter of --- Argyros & his wife ---. Zonaras refers to "vestacharum dignitate𠉪 Duca Sardicæ dux", indicating the future Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes, whose father married "Romani Argyri neptem ex fratre"[679]. It should be noted that this passage does not state clearly that this wife of Konstantinos was the mother of Emperor Romanos. It is possible that Romanos was born from another marriage, his mother being less well-connected as she is not referred to directly in the text. Cedrenus records that the wife of "Constantinus Diogenes" was "fratre imperatoris nata"[680]. Konstantinos & [his wife] had one child:


Watch the video: Byzantium invades Seljuk (August 2022).