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BORN: 1834 in Laurel, IN.
DIED: 1896 in Columbia, TN.
CAMPAIGNS: Shiloh, Prairie Grove, Mobile, Vicksburg and Georgia (1864)
Francis Asbury Shoup was born in Laurel, Indiana, on March 22, 1834. He was the oldest of nine children, and graduated from West Point in 1855. Assigned to the 1st US Artillery, he fought against Seminoles in Florida, then resigned to practice law. He led a militia unit in Indiana, but returned to Florida because of his "aristocratic inclinations and admiration for the South." He passed the bar in St. Augustine, and began offering his services to the governor when the Civil War began. Shoup joined the Confederate military, and served at Shiloh, for which service he was promoted to brigadier general as of September 12, 1862. He also fought at Prairie Grove, Arkansas; Mobile, Alabama; and Vicksburg, Mississippi , where he was captured when the city fell to the Union. After he was paroled, he served as artillery chief during the Georgia campaigning of 1864, and supervised the construction of the defensive works along the Chattahoochee River. He later promoted the recruitment of black soldiers for the Confederacy, and served as Gen. John B. Hood's chief of staff. After the Civil War began, he worked as an Episcopal rector, and became a faculty member at the University of Mississippi and the University of the South. During the war, he had written texts on infantry and artillery drill; after the war, he wrote about mathematics and metaphysics. Shoup died on September 4, 1896, in Columbia, Tennessee.

Francis A. Shoup

Shoup was born near Laurel, Indiana, the first of nine children. He attended Indiana Asbury University in Greencastle, Indiana, and then went to the United States Military Academy, graduating in 1855 fifteenth out of a class of thirty-four. After leaving West Point, he served in the United States Army as a member of the First United States Artillery and fought against the Seminoles in Florida. He decided to retire on January 10, 1860, to become a lawyer in Indianapolis. [2] [3] [4]

Shoup was serving as a leader of an Indianapolis Zouave militia, but once the Civil War started, he moved to Florida to fight for the Confederacy, proclaiming he had "aristocratic inclinations and admiration for the South.". This shocked those in the Indianapolis militia, who had loved him as friend, and even gave him a special set of revolvers with holsters and trappings, believing he would serve in the Union army, and that officers would always ride horses and thus would need such a set. All Indianapolis reported of the incident was that Shoup had resigned from the militia. [5] [6]

In 1860, he moved to St. Augustine, Florida, where the Governor commissioned him a Lieutenant. He was actually admitted to the bar in Florida, although whether he actually practiced law is obscure. [ citation needed ]

At the Battle of Shiloh, he served as chief of artillery under William J. Hardee. In the summer of 1862 he started serving in Arkansas as Inspector General under Major General Thomas C. Hindman. On September 12, 1862, the First Confederate Congress made him a brigadier general, after which he commanded Hindman's Second Division. After the Battle of Prairie Grove, he went back across the Mississippi River.

After he was captured in the Battle of Vicksburg, he met some compatriots from his Indianapolis militia days, but they rejected him for fighting for the Confederacy. After he was paroled, he went to Georgia and fought in the Battle of Atlanta. He designed a defensive line and, following its approval by General Johnston, oversaw the construction in late June 1864 of what would become known as Johnston's River Line. [7] Shoup's design consisted of what would eventually total 36 unique forts later called "Shoupades." While the River Line was deemed an engineering success, its potential force was negated when General Sherman's army crossed the Chattahoochee north of the line. Johnston's River Line is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. During the war, he wrote texts on infantry and artillery drill and advocated for blacks to serve in the Confederate Army. He also served as Chief of Staff for the commander of the Army of Tennessee, John Bell Hood. [2] [5] [8]

After the war, Shoup became a professor at the University of Mississippi, and later, at the University of the South in Sewanee, Tennessee. Shoup was also an Episcopal rector and wrote books about mathematics and metaphysics. [2] [5] While he was a professor, Shoup wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin, Forty Years After" (1893), an essay for the Sewanee Review that considered the impact of Harriet Beecher Stowe's antislavery novel. Shoup initially praises Stowe's book for its broad circulation, but then he laments the loss of a patriarchal system for controlling black people while also expressing relief that white southerners are free of the burden of their slaves. [9]

Upon his death on September 4, 1896, in Columbia, Tennessee, he was buried in the cemetery of University of the South. [10]

In 2006 the Indiana Historical Bureau, Franklin County Historical Society, and the Indiana Division of the Sons of Confederate Veterans placed a historical marker honoring Shoup at Conwell Cemetery in Laurel, Indiana. Shoup Park and historical marker is also located on the campus of the University of the South (Sewanee, Tennessee). [2]

War life [ edit | edit source ]

At the Battle of Shiloh, he served as chief of artillery under William J. Hardee. In the summer of 1862 he started serving in Arkansas as Inspector General under Major General Thomas C. Hindman. On September 12, 1862, the First Confederate Congress made him a brigadier general, after which he commanded Hindman's Second Division. After the Battle of Prairie Grove, he went back across the Mississippi River.

After he was captured in the Battle of Vicksburg, he met some compatriots from his Indianapolis militia days, but they rejected him for fighting for the Confederacy. After he was paroled, he went to Georgia and fought in the Battle of Atlanta. He was the designer of the Shoupade design for fortifications along the Chattahoochee River, and advocated having blacks serving in the Confederate Army. During the war, he wrote texts on infantry and artillery drill. He also served as Chief of Staff for the commander of the Army of Tennessee, John Bell Hood. ΐ] Γ] Ε]

Shoup, Francis Asbury

(Mar. 22, 1834-Sept. 4, 1896). Priest and seminary professor. He was born in Laurel, Indiana. He attended DePauw University in Greencastle, Indiana. He later entered the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, where he graduated in 1855. In 1860 he resigned from the Army, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in Indianapolis. Shoup moved to St. Augustine to practice law. When the Civil War began, he entered the Confederate Army. During the war he met some Episcopalians and was baptized and confirmed on the battlefield by Bishop Stephen Elliott. After teaching mathematics at the University of Mississippi, he was ordained deacon on Dec. 20, 1868, and priest on May 2, 1869. From 1869 until 1875 he was professor of mathematics at the University of the South, and from 1869 until 1871 he was acting chaplain of the university. From 1871 until 1875 Shoup was the professor of ecclesiastical history and polity at the university, and from 1870 until 1875 he was the rector of St.-Paul&aposs-on-the-Mountain, Sewanee. After serving parishes in Waterford, New York, Nashville, Tennessee, and New Orleans, he returned to the University of the South as professor of engineering and physics. Shoup died in Columbia, Tennessee.

Glossary definitions provided courtesy of Church Publishing Incorporated, New York, NY,(All Rights reserved) from “An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church, A User Friendly Reference for Episcopalians,” Don S. Armentrout and Robert Boak Slocum, editors.

Charles Cuvier Dury

When beginning my genealogical research I, like so many others, was hoping to find famous ancestors, people with fascinating lives who would make me feel proud of my heritage. And I did find a few of those some of their stories I’ve shared on this blog. But I’ve also discovered a few infamous relatives as well, individuals whose exploits were not exactly the kind you want to brag about. Charles Cuvier Dury, my third cousin, twice removed, was one of these.

Charles Cuvier Dury was born on the 9th of May, 1885, in Cincinnati, Ohio. His father was Professor Charles Dury, a naturalist (as biologists were usually called in those days) and an expert in ornithology and entomology who taught classes at the University of Cincinnati. He was also a noted taxidermist, preserving specimens for natural history museums around the country, including the Smithsonian. Cuvier’s mother was Hannah Blanche Clayton, who eloped with the 36-year-old professor at the tender age of 15 Cuvier was born 14 months later. Of a delicate constitution, Hannah passed away when just 22, and six years later her husband was remarried, to Hannah’s younger half-sister, Anjeanette Welch (for those keeping score, Anjeanette was 17 at the time of her marriage, 30 years younger than her husband. She bore him five children and outlived him by those 30 years.)

Professor Charles Dury, 1931

It’s hard to say exactly what such strange family dynamics did to Cuvier, but he grew up headstrong and arrogant, defying his father’s attempt to educate him in his field, studying instead at the local conservatory in hopes of a career in the theater. He found some modest success as a singer, but his real desire was to manage his own theater company. He was married in 1906 to Alice Marshall, and shortly thereafter it was discovered that she suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis. Doctors advised them to move to Colorado, believing that the mountain air might provide a cure for Alice. They took that advice to heart and moved out to Denver, where Cuvier immediately began looking for an opportunity to fulfill his ambitions.

He placed an advertisement in the local paper for actors and actresses, and the very first person to respond was Mabel Perkins Bell, the fifteen-year-old wife of Burdette Bell and the mother of a baby girl. (Coincidentally – or perhaps not, it was never established – Burdette Bell and Cuvier Dury had known each other in Ohio, briefly attending the Cincinnati Music Conservatory together.) By all accounts Mabel was a girl of uncommon charm and beauty, the kind that made men lose their reason Burdette had married her almost immediately after meeting her, and Cuvier found himself similarly intoxicated. Burdette had been unable to find a job in Denver and was working in Wyoming, sending money home to his wife who was living with her mother. Cuvier went to Mabel’s mother and agreed to pay her five dollars a week for Mabel’s “services” as an actress he promptly deserted his sick wife and moved to a local boarding house with Mabel, registering there as husband and wife.

Illustration from The Pittsburgh Press, January 10, 1909. This illustration was widely used in newspapers across the US

Burdette Bell, concerned when his wife stopped writing to him, returned to Denver and was rebuffed my Mabel’s mother when he asked her whereabouts. For two weeks he wandered the streets looking for her, and finally happened upon her on the sidewalk. Mabel treated him with contempt, telling him she was through with him. He followed her to find out where she was living, and discovering she was with Cuvier Dury, procured a gun. On December 28, 1908, he went to the boarding house, called Mabel out from the room, went in and emptied the revolver into Dury, killing him instantly (and quite thoroughly.) Bell then turned himself in to the police.

The case was soon notorious, making the papers all over the country. It was widely speculated that Bell would plead “the unwritten law” that supposedly gave a man the “right” to kill any man who would steal his wife. Instead he pled self-defense, and was convicted of voluntary manslaughter.

An account of Burdette Bell’s conviction, from The Pittsburgh Daily Post, February 12, 1909

The Aftermath

Cuvier Dury’s body was sent back to Cincinnati for burial. His wife returned to her family home in Kentucky where she died from her illness in 1912.

Mabel divorced Burdette and surrendered their daughter to her mother’s custody. She went on to marry three more times, dying in California in 1939 at the age of 47.

Burdette Bell served less than two years in prison. After his release he remarried and relocated to Texas, where he lived out his life peacefully, raising a family and working at various occupations including as a chauffer for a private family and a projectionist in a local movie theater.

Birthdays in History

    Ludovic Halévy, French playwright (d. 1908) William John Wills, English explorer of Australia, member of the Burke and Wills expedition, born in Totnes, United Kingdom (d. 1861) Johann Philipp Reis, German physicist and inventor (d. 1874) John Dalberg, Baron Acton, English historian & historian (“Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely"), born in Naples, Italy (d. 1902) Albert Lindley Lee, American lawyer, Kansas State Supreme Court Judge, and Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Fulton, New York (d. 1907) August Weismann, German biologist (d. 1914) George D. Robinson, 34th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1896) Robert Sanford Foster, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Vernon, Indiana (d. 1903) William Dorsey Pender, Major General (Confederate Army), born in Edgecombe County, North Carolina (d. 1863) Edwin Klebs, German physician & bacteriologist (bacterial theory of infection, diphtheria bacillus), born in Königsberg, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1913)

Dmitri Mendeleev

Feb 8 Dmitri Mendeleev, Russian chemist and inventor who devised the periodic table of the elements, born in Tobolsk, Russia (d. 1907)

    Felix Dahn, German Historian, jurist and poet, born in Hamburg (d. 1912) William Henry Preece, Welsh electrical engineer/wireless pioneer, born in Caernarfon, Wales (d. 1913) Ernst Haeckel, German biologist (Causes of Evolution) and philosopher (Social Darwinism), born in Potsdam, Prussia (d. 1919) Gustav Hermann Nachtigal, German physician/colonizer/consul in Tunis George du Maurier, Franco-British illustrator and writer (Trilby), born in Paris, France (d. 1896) James Hector, Scottish geologist (d. 1907)

Gottlieb Daimler

Mar 17 Gottlieb Daimler, German engineer and inventor, designed 1st motorcycle, born in Schorndorf, Kingdom of Württemberg (d. 1900)

    Charles William Elliot, President of Harvard (1869-1909), born in Boston, Massachusetts Francis Asbury Shoup, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1896) John Wesley Powell, American geologist/explorer/ethnologist William Morris, England, designer/craftsman/poet/socialist Big Jim Fisk, American entrepreneur (d. 1872) William Rufus Terrill, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Covington City, Virginia (d. 1862) Lord Avebury [John Lubbock], British banker and politician, born in London (d. 1913) Viktor Hartmann, Russian architect and painter, born in St. Petersburg, Russia (d. 1873) Carl Heinrich Bloch, Danish painter (d. 1890) Hendrik Pierson, Dutch theologist (H Pierson Foundation), born in Amsterdam (d. 1923) Wesley Merritt, American Major General (Union Army), 1st American Military Governor of the Philippines, born in NYC, New York (d. 1910) Charles Spurgeon, English preacher and evangelist, born in Kelvedon, Essex, England (d. 1892) Jadwiga Łuszczewska, Polish poet, born in Warsaw, Poland (d. 1908) Hendrick Peter Godfried Quack, Dutch lawyer, economist and historian, born in Zetten, Netherlands (d. 1917) James Abbott McNeill Whistler, American-British painter (Whistler's Mother), born in Lowell, Massachusetts (d. 1903) James McNeill Whistler, American artist (Whistler's Mother), born in Lowell, Massachusetts (d. 1903) Peter Leyten, Bishop of Breda (1885-1914) (d. 1914) Edgar Degas, French impressionist painter, sculptor and artist (The Bellelli Family), born in Paris (d. 1917) Daniel McCook Jr, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Carrollton, Ohio (d. 1864) James Cardinal Gibbons, Archbishop of Baltimore, born in Baltimore, Maryland (d. 1921) Peter H Hugenholtz, Dutch reformer/founder (Free Parish)

Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi

Aug 2 Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi, French sculptor (designed the Statue of Liberty), born in Colmar, France (d. 1904)

    Isaac Capadose, clergyman in the Catholic Apostolic Church, born in The Hague, Netherlands (d. 1920) John Venn, English mathematician (Venn Diagram), born in Kingston upon Hull, Yorkshire, England (d. 1923) Marshall Field, American entrepreneur and the founder of Marshall Field and Company, born in Conway, Massachusetts (d. 1906) Nathaniel Harrison Harris, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Natchez, Mississippi (d. 1900) Samuel Pierpont Langley, American astronomer and pioneer aviator, born in Roxbury, Boston, Massachusetts (d. 1906) Joseph Henry Shorthouse, English writer (John Inglesant), born in Birmingham, England (d. 1903) William MacRae, American Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Wilmington, North Carolina (d. 1882) Heinrich von Treitschke, German historian and political writer, born in Dresden, Kingdom of Saxony (d. 1896) Edouard Pailleron, French attorney, poet and stage writer, born in Paris, France (d. 1899) Francis Cockrell, American Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Warrensburg, Missouri (d. 1915) Aleksis Kivi, Finnish writer and poet (Nummisuutarit), born in Nurmijärvi, Grand Duchy of Finland (d. 1872) Francis Channing Barlow, US lawyer/gen-major/co-founder (ABA) Dudley M. DuBose, American Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Memphis, Tennessee (d. 1883) Jose Hernandez, Argentine poet (MartinFierro), born in Chacra de Pueyrredon, Argentina (d. 1886) Wager Swayne, American Colonel (Union Army), born in Columbus, Ohio (d. 1902) Ignacio Manuel Altamirano, Mexican author (El Zarco), born in Tixtla, Guerrero, Mexico (d. 1893) Stephen Hinsdale Weed, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Potsdam, New York (d. 1863) Georg Hermann Quincke, German physicist (test of Quincke), born in Frankfurt-on-Oder, Brandenburg, Germany (d. 1924)

Hetty Green

Nov 21 Henrietta "Hetty" Green, American businesswoman and financier whose wealth and miserliness saw her known as the "Witch of Wall Street", born in New Bedford, Massachusetts (d. 1916)

    Joseph Jackson Bartlett, American attorney, diplomat and Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Binghamton, New York (d. 1893) Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom, American civil engineer, and Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Norwich, Vermont (d. 1864) Leon Walras, French economist (border use theory)

Francis Asbury Shoup: Lawyer, Soldier, Minister, Teacher

Francis Asbury Shoup was born in Laurel Township, Franklin County, Indiana, on March 22, 1834. He was the oldest of nine children of George Grove Shoup, a wealthy merchant and miller, and his wife Jane Conwell.

At the age of 17 Francis was appointed a cadet at West Point, from which he graduated in 1855 as a brevet 2nd lieutenant of the artillery. He served in the garrison at Key West and Fort Moultrie, and was commissioned a 2nd lieutenant on December 6, 1855. He served in the Seminole War in Florida from 1856 to 1858, and then resigned his commission to return home to Indiana. His father had passed away in 1853, and his mother in 1859, and he took over the care of his younger brothers and sisters. While living in Indianapolis he studied the law, but his heart remained in the south and, returning to Florida he was admitted to the bar at St. Augustine.

Francis Asbury Shoup, ca 1864

When the Civil War broke out he was appointed a lieutenant of the artillery in the Confederate Army, and under the orders of the governor of Florida erected a battery at Fernadina. In October, 1861, he was commissioned a major of artillery and was in command of a battalion of twelve guns with the Arkansas troops in Kentucky. When General Hardee assumed command of the army of central Kentucky, Francis was made chief of artillery, in which capacity he served at the Battle of Shiloh.

On September 12, 1862, he was promoted to brigadier general and the following April was ordered to Mobile, Alabama as chief of artillery for General Buckner. At Vicksburg he commanded a Louisiana brigade and was captured by the Union when the city fell.

After returning to the army following a prisoner exchange, he served as chief of artillery for Joseph E. Johnston, and his skillful management was credited for the fact that not a gun was lost as the army retreated from Dalton to Atlanta in 1864. The works at Chatahootchee, which (Union) General Sherman declared were the best he had ever seen, were constructed under Francis’s command. Upon the removal of Johnston, General Hood made Francis his Chief of Staff, but after the fall of Atlanta he was relieved at his own request.

A year following the close of the war Francis was elected to the chair of applied mathematics at the University of Mississippi. There he studied for the ministry and was admitted to orders in the Episcopal Church. On the 26th of June, 1871, he married Esther Elliot, the daughter of Steven Elliot, the first bishop of the Episcopal Church in Georgia. Francis and Esther had four children as he pursued his careers in both the church and the academy. He officiated as rector at Waterford, NY, Nashville, TN and New Orleans, LA, and also filled the chair of metaphysics at the University of the South in Sewanee, TN.

Francis Asbury Shoup, ca 1880

He is the author of a work on infantry tactics and a text book, Artillery Division Drill. In 1874 he published a math text book, Elements of Algebra. He died in 1896 and is buried near the university in Sewanee.

Francis Asbury Shoup was my 1st cousin, 4 times removed, the nephew of my third great-grandparents, John Casad and Sophia Shoup. It’s not popular now to “own” relatives who served the Confederacy during the Civil War, and having grown up in the north I had always assumed that my relatives were strictly on the side of the Union during that conflict. It was a shock to discover I was related to a Confederate general. What is intriguing about Francis is that in spite of his support for the South he was never a slave holder, and following the war he chose a peaceful, conciliatory way of life, living in both the north and the south in the remaining years of his life. What I also found interesting is that the Shoup family is the only branch of the family that I have yet uncovered where brothers were actually on opposite sides of the conflict. Francis and his brother, James Conwell Shoup both served the South. James rose to the rank of Captain, and spent his post-war years practicing law in New York and New Jersey. Their younger brother Samuel Shoup joined the US Army regulars as a sharp shooter, and during the war served in the Ohio infantry, the Indiana cavalry and the Michigan infantry at various times, rising to the rank of Sergeant Major. Strangely, he spent his post-war years in the south, first in Mississippi, where he married Elizabeth Aldrich, and then in Delaware, making his fortune as a merchant.

Biographies on Florida’s Confederate Generals

Several years ago, I posted a list of North Carolina-born Confederate generals who had biographies written about them. Unfortunately, the list is still rather small. You can check out that post here. Over the next year or so, I thought we might look at other states.

Florida is a little more difficult. Most of the generals associated with the state of Florida came from other places. Only two on this list below, Edmond Kirby Smith and James W. McIntosh, were born in Florida. In contrast, there were four Federal generals born in Florida. If I have missed any book-length biographies on Confederate generals associated with Florida, please drop me a line and let me know, and I will update the list.

Francis Asbury

Some today might call him a workaholic. Or maybe just utterly dedicated. English-born Francis Asbury certainly had the numbers: during his 45-year ministry in America, he traveled on horseback or in carriage an estimated 300,000 miles, delivering some 16,500 sermons. He was so well-known in America that letters addressed to "Bishop Asbury, United States of America" were delivered to him.

And the result of all this labor and fame? He put American Methodism on the denominational map.

Rapid ordination

Asbury was born into a working-class Anglican family he dropped out of school before he was 12 to work as a blacksmith's apprentice. By the time he was 14, he had been "awakened" in the Christian faith.

He and his mother attended Methodist meetings, where soon he began to preach he was appointed a full-time Methodist preacher by the time he was 21. In 1771, at a gathering of Methodist ministers, John Wesley asked, "Our brethren in America call aloud for help. Who are willing to go over and help them?" Asbury volunteered.

When in October 1771, Asbury landed in Philadelphia, there were only 600 Methodists in America. Within days, he hit the road preaching but pushed himself so hard that he fell ill that winter. This was the beginning of a pattern: over the next 45 years, he suffered from colds, coughs, fevers, severe headaches, ulcers, and eventually chronic rheumatism, which forced him off his horse and into a carriage. Yet he continued to preach.


George Whitefield converted

John & Charles Wesley's evangelical conversions

First production of Handel's Messiah

J. N. Darby founds the Plymouth Brethren

During the Revolutionary War, Asbury remained politically neutral. To avoid signing an oath disclaiming his allegiance to England and to dodge the American draft, he went into hiding for several months. "I am considered by some as an enemy," he wrote, "liable to be seized by violence and abused." By war's end, he had retained his credibility with the victorious Americans and was able to continue his ministry among them.

After the war, John Wesley ordained Englishman Thomas Coke as Wesley's American superintendent. Coke, in turn, ordained Asbury at the famous Baltimore "Christmas Conference" of 1784, which gave birth to the American Methodist Episcopal Church. On Christmas Day, Asbury was ordained a deacon, the following day, an elder, and on December 27, a superintendent (against Wesley's advice, Asbury later used the term "bishop"). As Coke put it, "We were in great haste and did much business in a little time." Within six months, Coke returned to England, and thereafter, Asbury held the reins of American Methodism.

Organizational man

Organization was Asbury's gift. He created "districts" of churches, each of which would be served by circuit riders&mdashpreachers who traveled from church to church to preach and minister, especially in rural areas. In the late 1700s, 95 percent of Americans lived in places with fewer than 2,500 inhabitants, and thus most did not have access to church or clergy.

This is one reason Asbury pushed for missionary expansion into the Tennessee and Kentucky frontier&mdasheven though his and other preachers' lives were constantly threatened by illness and Indian attacks. According to biographer Ezra Tipple, Asbury's preaching was more zeal than art, and highly effective. Tipple wrote there were occasions when "under the rush of his utterance, people sprang to their feet as if summoned to the judgment bar of God."

Though a school dropout, Asbury launched five schools. He also promoted "Sunday schools," in which children were taught reading, writing, and arithmetic.

Asbury didn't limit his work to administration and preaching. Asbury hated slavery and petitioned George Washington to enact antislavery legislation. "My spirit was grieved at the conduct of some Methodists," wrote Asbury, "that hire slaves at public places to the highest bidder, to cut skin, and starve them."

Asbury pushed himself to the end. After preaching what was to be his last sermon, he was so weak he had to be carried to his carriage. By then, though, Methodism had grown under his leadership to 200,000 strong. His legacy continued with the 4,000 Methodist preachers he had ordained: by the Civil War, American Methodists numbered 1.5 million.

Glossary of Terms

Prayer of blessing drawn from Nm 6:24-26. An optional blessing at the close of An Order of Worship for the Evening (BCP, p. 114). The form of committal in the Burial of the Dead is an adaptation of the Aaronic Blessing (BCP, pp. 485, 501). It is provided as a Seasonal Blessing by the BOS [&hellip]


Female leader or superior of a religious community, usually a community following the Benedictine Rule. In community matters, the abbess has the same authority as an abbot, but without the abbot's sacramental function. The abbess is the spiritual, administrative, and jurisdictional superior of the community. This page is available in: Español


A monastic community of religious persons along with the buildings of the community. The abbey consists of monks ruled by an abbot, or of nuns under an abbess. Abbeys are independent of the jurisdiction of the local bishop. The traditional plan of the buildings included an oratory (chapel), a chapter room (for assemblies of the [&hellip]


Male leader or superior of a religious community. The title is derived from the Latin abbas or the Aramaic abba, “Father.” The abbot functions as the “father” of the community. He is elected for life and receives authority from a bishop. The role of the abbot is to regulate the life of the community in [&hellip]


A solemn renunciation of any belief, thing, or person to which one was previously loyal. This formal retraction of errors, made before witnesses, often concerned matters of apostasy, heresy, or schism. Prior to 1972, this solemn disavowal was required of baptized Christians being received into the Roman Catholic Church. The Greek Church has required particular [&hellip]


See Abjuration. This page is available in: Español


Liturgical and ceremonial cleaning of the paten and chalice with water, or with water and wine, following the communion of the people at the Holy Eucharist. If the consecrated bread and wine are not reserved for later use, they are consumed by the ordained and lay ministers of the eucharist either after the communion of [&hellip]

Absalom Jones Theological Institute

A unit of the Interdenominational Theological Center, Atlanta, from 1972 to 1978. Named for the first African American priest in the Episcopal Church, it was to be a resource institution for Episcopal seminarians who wanted to serve African American communities. Its only dean was Quinland Reeves Gordon. This page is available in: Español


The formal act by a bishop or priest of pronouncing God’s forgiveness of sins through Jesus Christ. The absolution of sins reflects the ministry of reconciliation committed by Christ to the church. Absolution may be pronounced following private confession of sins, as provided for by the two forms for The Reconciliation of a Penitent in [&hellip]

Abstinence, Days of

See Days of Abstinence. This page is available in: Español


A salutation or greeting in the opening dialogue of the eucharistic liturgy arranged by versicle and response and varied according to the liturgical season. The memorial acclamation is a congregational response that may follow the institution narrative in the eucharistic prayers. This page is available in: Español


In contemporary Anglicanism, a general term which covers not only servers, torchbearers, and lighters of candles but also crucifers, thurifers, and banner-bearers. Acolytes are mentioned as a minor order (along with porters, lectors, and exorcists) as early as a letter of Pope Cornelius to Fabius of Antioch in 252. They were also mentioned in Cyprian’s [&hellip]

Adams, William

(July 3, 1813-Jan. 2, 1897). One of the founders of Nashotah House, he was born in Monaghan, Ireland, and received his B.A. in 1836 from Trinity College, Dublin. In 1838 he came to the United States and entered the General Theological Seminary, New York, graduating in 1841. He was ordained deacon on June 27, 1841, [&hellip]

Addison, James Thayer

(Mar. 21, 1887-Feb. 13, 1953). A leader and authority in overseas missionary work, Addison was born in Fitchburg, Massachusetts, and received his B.A. from Harvard in 1909. He received his B.D. from the Episcopal Theological School in 1913. Addison was ordained deacon on June 7, 1913, and priest on Dec. 13, 1913. After serving as [&hellip]


From the Greek, “things indifferent,” matters which can be accepted or rejected without prejudice to belief. Such practices or beliefs may be tolerated or permitted, but may not be required of faithful members of the church. A sixteenth-century dispute among German Protestants over Roman Catholic practices such as Extreme Unction and Confirmation was finally resolved [&hellip]


A Hebrew word literally meaning “my lord,” or simply “lord.” It is frequently used in the OT to refer to human lords. However, in the period following the Exile when the proper name for God, Yahweh, was understood to be too holy to pronounce, Adonai was substituted. In most English translations, following this tradition, the [&hellip]


The teaching that Jesus was born an “ordinary man” who lived an exemplary life pleasing to God and was consequently “adopted” by God as the divine Son. The moment of adoption was usually considered to be his baptism. Jesus&apos resurrection was also considered by some the moment of his adoption. Adoptionism relaxes the paradoxical divine-human [&hellip]


An expression of supreme love and worship for God alone. Adoration, one of the six principal kinds of prayer, “is the lifting up of the heart and mind to God, asking nothing but to enjoy God&aposs presence.” (BCP, p. 857). This page is available in: Español


The first season of the church year, beginning with the fourth Sunday before Christmas and continuing through the day before Christmas. The name is derived from a Latin word for “coming.” The season is a time of preparation and expectation for the coming celebration of our Lord&aposs nativity, and for the final coming of Christ [&hellip]

Advent Festival of Lessons and Music

A service held during the pre-Christmas Advent season in which the reading of the scriptural history of salvation from the creation to the coming of Christ is interspersed with the singing of the great music of the season, including but not limited to carols. A traditional form of service is included in the BOS. The [&hellip]

Glossary definitions provided courtesy of Church Publishing Incorporated, New York, NY,(All Rights reserved) from “An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church, A User Friendly Reference for Episcopalians,” Don S. Armentrout and Robert Boak Slocum, editors.

Watch the video: Francis Asbury: A Flame Spirit A short documentary (August 2022).