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(SS-179: dp. 1,330 (surf.), 1,997 (subm.); 1. 300'7"; b. 25'1"; dr. 13'10"; s. 19 k. (surf.), 9 k. (subm.); cpl. 50; a. 6
21" tt., 1 3", 2.50 eal., 6.30 car.; cl. Porpoise)
The second Plunger (SS-179) was laid down 17 July 1935 at the Portsmouth, N.H., Navy Yned, Iaunehed 8 July 1936 sponsored by Miss Edith E. Greenlee, and commissioned 19 November 1936, Lt. George L. Russell in command.
Plunger departed Gravesend Bay, N.Y. 15 April 1937 for shakedown cruise to Guantanamo Bay, the Canal Zone, and Guayaquil, Eeuador. In November, following post- shakedown alterations at Portsmouth, she steamed to San Diego to join SubDiv 14, SubRon 6. Continuing operations in the San Diego area for the next several years, Plunger joined Holland (AS 3) and 5 P-class subs 15 March 1938 for a cruise to Dutch Harbor, Alaska. Praetice cruises to waters off Panama and Hawaii occupied the next several years. On 30 November 1941 she reported to Pearl Harbor and was off Diamond Head when Japanese planes attacked 7 December.
With Gudgeon (SS-211) and Pollack (SS-180), Plunger departed Pearl Harbor the 14th on her first war patrol to Kii Suido, a principal entrance into the Inland Sea and an important funnel to industrial bases in the area. She sank Japanese cargo ship Eizon Maru 18 January 1942.
Plunger'~s 2nd war patrol, 5 June to 15 July, took her off Shanghai. On this patrol, Plunger sank 4,700-ton cargo ship Ukai Maru No. 5 on 30 June and Unyo Maru No. 3 on 2 July before returning to Midway the 15th. While on this patrol, she sighted Italian steamer SS Conte Verde, proceeding to the U.S. with diplomats on board, including Ambassador Grew.
In October, as U.S. forces pushed on to Matanikau and Cape Esperance, Plunger departed Pearl Harbor on the 12th to reconnoiter the area and to block the "Tokyo Express." However' Plunger hit an uncharted reef 2 November, destroying her sound gear and damaging her bottom.
After repairing at Brisbane, Plunger returned to the Guadalcanal area for her fourth war patrol and operated off Munda, where Japanese barges were coming in at night, unloading troops and supplies, and departing by day-break. On the night of 16 17 December she slipped past four destroyers and attacked two others unloading at Munda Bar. After seeing two of her "fish" explode, she slipped away from a eounterattsek. After another attack with unknown results the next night, and a bomber attack while heading home 8 January 1943, she arrived Pearl Harbor 12 January.
Plunger continued reconnaissance patrols throughout the spring and summer. She sank Taihosan Maru 12 March, and destroyed Tatsutake Maru and Kinai Maru 10 May. In June, she jomed Lapon and Permit in the first U.S. penetration into the Sea of Japan, an area abounding with Japanese shipping. Crossing the southern end of the Sea of Okhotsk, the ships returned to Midway 26 July but departed again 6 August to return to the Sea of Okhotsk. Plunger sank 3,404-ton Seitai Maru there 20 August and 4,655-ton Ryokai Maru 22 August. Returning to Pearl Harbor 5 September, the ships were the only U.S. vessels to complete 2 patrols to that Sea until the final weeks of the war.
In October, Plunger reconnoitered in the Marshalls area. Plunger added lifeguard duties to her operations as U.S. bombers hit the islands. She stopped to piek up a do~ned pilot 15 November. During the rescue, a Zero strafed the boat, seriously wounding the executive officer and 5 bluejackets. Nevertheless, the submarine rescued Lt. (j.g.) Franklin George Sehramm.
Frequent depth-charge attacks pursued Plunger in January 1944 as she patrolled off the Japanese main islands. The risk was profitable, however, aB Plunger sank Toyo Maru No. 5 and Toyo Maru No. 8 on 2 February and Kimishima Maru on the 23d. Returning to Pearl Harbor 8 March, Plunger departed again 8 May to patrol the Bonin Islands. In July, she patrolled in and around Truk.
On 19 September 1944, ehe reported to Pearl Harbor for overhaul. She departed 15 February 1945 for New London, to serve in a training capacity until 25 October, when she reported to New Haven for Navy Day celebrations. On 30 October she reported to the Boston Navy Yard, where she decommissioned 15 November 1945.
Retained in an inactive status, Plunger was fitted for service as a Naval Reserve Training vessel and reported to Brooklyn, N.Y. in May 1946, remaining there until 8 May 1952, when she departed for Jacksonville, Fla. to support the Naval Reserve Training Program. Returning to New York 18 February 1954, she was declared unessential 5 July 1956. Struck from the Navy Register 6 July 1956, she was sold to Bethlehem Steel Co., Bethlehem, Pa. 22 April 1957.
Plunger received 14 battle stars for World War II service.
USS Plunger SSN-595 Tribute
The name "Plunger" is a distinguished one in United States submarine history, from the SS-2, the first submarine to be ordered by the Navy, through the SS-179 with its twelve war patrols, 16 sinkings, and numerous other plaudits, to the SSN-595, the most decorated submarine ever at Subase Ballast Point San Diego, CA. The common link is that they have all gone "in harm's way" in their own fashion and served their country well.
"Give me a strong ship and the men to sail her, for I intend to go in harm's way." -John Paul Jones
The USS Plunger SSN-595 keel was laid March 2, 1960. She was christened and launched on 9 December 1961. She was commissioned at Mare Island Naval Shipyard 21 November 1962. Initially homeported in Pearl Harbor as part of Submarine Division 71, she served as the Submarine Force Flagship in 1963 and was transferred to San Diego in 1973 to join Submarine Squadron Three.
The USS Plunger SSN-595 was the third of what came to be known as the world's "first modern, quiet, deep-diving fast attack submarines, "integrating such advanced features as a hydrodynamically shaped hull, a large bow-mounted sonar array, advanced sound-silencing features, and an integrated control/attack center with the proven S5W reactor plant. Designed for prolonged periods submerged, she was limited only by the amount of food that she can carry, and is capable of sustained operation at high speed. All of these features made these ships the truly mature nuclear submarine design in the world at that time. So revolutionary, in fact, were these changes that one exercise report concluded with the statement that "at present we still have much to learn about the effective use of nuclear submarines".
Much of the Plunger's first years were spent in the development and testing of new weapons and tactics for nuclear submarines. In addition to this, she was also tasked with the full operational evaluation of the SUBROC anti-submarine missile, for which she received the SUBPAC Award for Excellence in Fire Control.
The Plunger was featured in All Hands magazine in October 1966. The following pages are scanned images of the feature stories about Plunger and her crew. The images are large so they can easily be read and they are filled with pictures of the crew from 1966.Cover, Page 1, Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5. In the September 1967 issue of ALL HANDS Magazine a Subroc is moved for loading aboard the USS Plunger (SSN 595). This rare photo was taken off Hawaii in early 1968. It shows Submarine Division 71 operating off Oahu. The boats are the USS Flasher SSN-613, USS Guardfish SSN-612, USS Barb SSN-596 and the USS Plunger SSN-595 steaming in formation. This is the back of the photo.
Plunger went through three major overhauls, two at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and a refueling overhaul at Mare Island Naval Shipyard from 1971 through 1973. Each overhaul saw her fitted with the latest in sonar, fire control, and electronic gear, along with improvements in her propulsion machinery. This gives credence to a favorite expression of a Pacific Fleet commander regarding 594 class submarines that "If you take an axe and replace the head and handle often enough, pretty soon you have a new axe."
In recognition of her abilities, Plunger won an impressive number of wards, including four Navy Unit Commendations, two Meritorious Unit Commendations, and six Battle "E" combat efficiency awards, making her the most highly decorated submarine in San Diego history. In addition, she was awarded in 1969, the Arleigh Burke Fleet Trophy as the ship exhibiting the most improvement in battle efficiency for that year-the first Pacific Fleet submarine to be so honored. She was again honored in 1983 by being the SUBPAC nominee for the award.
Plunger was also awarded the prestigious Marjorie Sterrett Battleship Fund Award in 1986 as the most combat-ready warship in the Pacific. This gave Plunger the distinction of being the only US submarine to win both of these impressive awards.
Despite significant differences, the USS Plunger SSN-595 has much in common with her distinguished ancestors. They all have been pioneers, the Navy's first submarine, one of the first submarines to take the war to the Japanese, and one of the first true submarine warships, able to operate totally divorced from the surface. All have been well-constructed and well-crewed and, despite the fact all have, in their own way, gone "in harm's way," all have discharged their duties with honor. "The past is prologue" is the motto of the USS Plunger SSN-595 . She has lived up to that creed and leaves an even richer legacy to her successor.
Operating out of San Diego in 1987. Passing Coronado and from Point Loma.
USS Plunger's final deployment to the Western Pacific included port visits to Chinhae, Korea, Hong Kong , Hong Kong 1, Hong Kong 2 and Okinawa.
A very large jpg of the USS Plunger SSN-595 deactivation ceremony pamphlet cover.
Over head picture of USS Plunger SSN-595 after decommisioning in Mare Island. The overhead picture of Plunger at Mare Island NSY was taken sometime in January 1990, she had been Defueled and final preparations were being made for towing to Bremerton WA. Soon after this picture was taken she was turned over to the shipyard and the final remnants of the crew were dispersed. It's interesting that she is berthed about 500 ft from the place where it all started almost 30 years before, the Building Way in the upper left of the picture.
PLUNGER SS 179
This section lists the names and designations that the ship had during its lifetime. The list is in chronological order.
- Perch Class Submarine
Keel Laid July 17 1935 - Launched July 8 1936
This section lists active links to the pages displaying covers associated with the ship. There should be a separate set of pages for each incarnation of the ship (ie, for each entry in the "Ship Name and Designation History" section). Covers should be presented in chronological order (or as best as can be determined).
Since a ship may have many covers, they may be split among many pages so it doesn't take forever for the pages to load. Each page link should be accompanied by a date range for covers on that page.
This section lists examples of the postmarks used by the ship. There should be a separate set of postmarks for each incarnation of the ship (ie, for each entry in the "Ship Name and Designation History" section). Within each set, the postmarks should be listed in order of their classification type. If more than one postmark has the same classification, then they should be further sorted by date of earliest known usage.
A postmark should not be included unless accompanied by a close-up image and/or an image of a cover showing that postmark. Date ranges MUST be based ONLY ON COVERS IN THE MUSEUM and are expected to change as more covers are added.
>>> If you have a better example for any of the postmarks, please feel free to replace the existing example.
New Filling Mechanisms
After World War II, Sheaffer introduced a new filling mechanism. The Touchdown mechanism used air pressure from a plunger tube to compress the ink sac when the plunger reaches the end, pressure is released through tiny holes and the sac reinflates. This was vacuum filling done right the Touchdown mechanism is longer lasting and much easier to repair than other vacuum fill mechanisms.
Numerous pens would use the Touchdown mechanism from 1949-1963, including the innumerable variants on the original Touchdown and Thin Model. The Touchdown mechanism would continue in production into the 1990s, ending with the Touchdown converter mechanism in the Sheaffer Legacy.
An important variant in the Touchdown design is the Snorkel design, which was a Touchdown mechanism with an additional retractable ink tube. Rotating the end cap extended a needle-like tube which would be dipped in ink, keeping the rest of the pen clean. The Snorkel was introduced around 1955 and at that time replaced most of the Thin Model lineup.
During the 1960s cartridges took over the fountain pen world. Although Sheaffer did not invent the cartridge, they made zillions of inexpensive cartridge pens for the school market, variants of which are still in production today.
Rear sight body.
Square cut behind hole for elevation / windage shaft, so it's Type 2.
Type 2 rear sight bodies were used from around serial number 25,000 through the end of production, so any time after December 1939.
Manufactured by Springfield (closed arrowheads), Type 3 (captive flush nut, no spring).
That means after approximate serial number 4,200,000, so post World War II. The WWII-era windage knobs used a relatively poor design with a "lock bar".
Each click changes the windage by just less than one minute of arc, or 0.96 inch at 100 yards, or 2.67 cm at 100 meters.
Some of the plotters were executed on the same day. General Olricht, Colonel von Stauffenberg, and two other conspirators were captured at the Benderblock, site of many offices of the Supreme High Command of the German Army, tried by an impromptu court martial, and executed by firing squad in the courtyard. Another major plotter, General Ludwig von Beck, was allowed to commit suicide. He was killed by a coup de grace after he succeeded only in wounding himself.
In the days that followed, Hitler ordered a massive hunt for conspirators which continued for months. This search netted most of the conspirators, along with those who were more peripherally connected such as Field Marshal Erwin Rommel. Rommel’s name arose in interrogations but it was likely he was not directly involved.
Many of the conspirators appeared before the notorious People’s Courts for show trials, but this practice was ended as it gave conspirators a platform to condemn the regime. In the end more than 7,000 people were arrested, and 4,980 were executed, often on the barest evidence
プランジャーは1937年4月15日に グレーブズエンド湾 （英語版） を出航し、グアンタナモ湾、パナマ運河地帯、エクアドルのグアヤキルを巡航した。ポーツマスでの整調後改修を終えると、11月にサンディエゴを出航し第6潜水戦隊第14潜水小艦隊に合流する。続く数年間をサンディエゴ海域での作戦活動に費やし、プランジャーは1938年3月15日にダッチハーバーで潜水母艦ホーランド (USS Holland, AS-3) および他の5隻の潜水艦と合流した。その後数年間、パナマおよびハワイ沖で訓練巡航を行い、1941年11月30日に真珠湾に到着。12月8日の真珠湾攻撃時には、艦長デヴィッド・C・ホワイト少佐（アナポリス1927年組）の指揮下、ダイヤモンドヘッド沖を巡行中であった。
第1、第2の哨戒 1941年12月 - 1942年7月 編集
12月14日、プランジャーは最初の哨戒でガジョン (USS Gudgeon, SS-211) およびポラック (USS Pollack, SS-180) とともに日本近海に向かった。この3隻は、2つの重要な新兵器を搭載していた。それは、マーク14型魚雷に取り付けられた磁気爆発突、もう一つは初期型のSDレーダーであった。プランジャーは紀伊水道周辺を哨戒し、1942年1月18日には潮岬近海で貨物船栄山丸（興国汽船、4,702トン）を撃沈した。2月4日、プランジャーは52日間の行動を終えて帰投した  。
第3、第4の哨戒 1942年10月 - 1943年1月 編集
11月22日  、プランジャーは4回目の哨戒でソロモン諸島方面に向かった。ガダルカナル島海域およびニュージョージア島ムンダ沖で哨戒を行った。この頃、ムンダには日本軍の艀船が夜間に訪れ兵員と物資を陸揚げし、夜が明けると島を離れるという行動を繰り返していた。12月16日から17日にかけての夜、プランジャーは4隻の駆逐艦と遭遇、その近くで陸揚げ中の2隻の船に対して攻撃を行い、発射した魚雷の爆発を確認すると、反撃をかわして戦線を離脱した  。17日夜にも駆逐艦に対して魚雷を4本を発射し2つの命中音を聴取したものの、はっきりとした戦果は確認できなかった  。1943年1月8日、マキンとナウル島間の海域を航行中のプランジャーは九七式飛行艇の爆撃を受けたが、被害はなかった  。1月12日、プランジャーは53日間の行動を終えて真珠湾に帰投。艦長がレイモンド・H・バス少佐（アナポリス1931年組）に代わった。
Plunger II SS-179 - History
The colours of the Vacumatic Parker 51's and the Aerometric Parker 51's.
There are two easy ways to date the early Parker "51" . First, starting in 1943, the year of making was printed at the bottom of the tubular nib, but of course dating from the nib is inexact at best, as the nib is one of the most frequently replaced parts. Secondly an imprint can be found on the top of the barrel, just under the cap clutch ring: PARKER "51" 6 MADE IN U.S.A. The small digit denotes the year of making for the barrel. This digit was deleted on the US made pens in 1953 but continued until 1959 on European (and Canadian?) pens, the same for the date on the nib.
A "First Year" Parker "51" in Cedar Blue. from the first quarter of 1941. Note the distict features, Double aluminium jewels, metal filler with diamond imprint.
The Parker "51" came in 4 basic different styles. There's been some confusion, since David Shepherd chose in this book "Parker 51" not to count the Vacumatic filler as MK I, instead starting with the first aerometric model. It might become grounds for confusion, but In this article the Vacumatic filler will be referred to as the MK I, the Aerometric with the rounded end as the MK II, the aerometric with the plastic jeweled "61" style cap and squarish end as the MK III and the aerometric with the metal jeweled "61" style cap as the MK IV. To complicate things further there's also a MK I-B, a transitional Vacumatic filler with the new style non-blue diamond cap with a long clip. The MK II can also be divided into MK II-A, with the longer clip cap, (identical to the MK I-B), the MK II-B with a shorter clip and MK II-C with an even shorter clip with fewer feathers and the "halo" logo on the cap.
The colours of the vacumatic filler Parker "51":
India Black, Mustard Yellow, Buckskin Beige, Nassau Green, early Cedar Blue, later Cedar Blue, Dove grey, Navy Grey and Cordovan Brown. At the bottom a half Demonstrator with the section in clear lucite, note the red ink collector,
here's also the rare button filled Parker "51" referred to as the Red Band, which was produced for a few months only from June 1946 until the end of 1947, and the Cartridge Filler Parker "51", produced 1958 until 1962. These were however produced side by side with the standard line.
Mark I (1942-48), had the (late) Vacumatic filling system with a plastic plunger hidden behind a blind cap. It also had the arrow clip with the blue diamond design previously added to the the Vacumatics in 1939. From 1943 the nib was date coded.
The Mark I Parker "51" came in seven colours:
Nassau Green (aka Sage)
Mustard (aka Yellowstone)
Tan (aka Buckskin Beige)
here are also examples of Demonstrators, a pen in all aspects like the ordinary Parker "51" but made in clear plastic, showing the workings inside the pen, primarely made for pen sellers. Two versions were produced, the so called Half Demonstrator, which had the gripping section made in clear lucite was produced from 1941, some had the ink collector made in red, which created a striking effect. The Full Demonstrator, with both the section, body and blind cap in clear plastic, was made from 1945, although most are dated 1947-1948. Care should be taken when buying a Demonstrator, since there are a number of recently made replicas floating around. The replicas do not (so far) carry any date code imprints. Both the half demonstrator and full demonstrator are being reproduced, and also a version where both cap, barrel and section are made from clear lucite. All versions are being made both as vacumatic fillers and aerometric fillers with original Parker internal parts, so it's very hard to tell the difference.
The Parker "51" aerometrics: Black, Navy Grey, Teal Blue, Midnight Blue, Plum, Burgundy, Blood Red, Forest Green and Cocoa.
Lustraloy (steel) with GF clip, this is the standard cap (intro 1942)
Lustraloy with GF clip and GF cap band
Lustraloy with Chrome Plated clip
Lined Coin Silver and GF clip
Sterling Silver with vertical lines with GF clip and chevron band, a cap band sporting a pattern of repeated chevrons, this is the most common silver cap.
Sterling Silver plain with GF clip and chevron band
Sterling hammered Silver (intro 1942)
Custom, Gold filled plain
Custom, GF with thin vertical lines
custom, Gold filled with alternating 4 vertical lines and plain band, this is the most common GF design
Insignia, Gold filled with alternating 9 vertical lines plain band
Insignia with Gold filled alternating straight and wavy lines and plain band
Signet GF with converging lines Signet GF with thin vertical lines and chevron band
Heritage GF cap solid 14k gold clip, "squares"
Heirloom, all solid 14k gold, plain
Heirloom, all solid 14 k gold, fish scales, (aka Scallop) (intro 1942)
Heirloom, all solid 14 k gold, two tone red/yellow lines
Heirloom, all solid 14 k gold, fine barley Empire (aka Icicle, aka Manhattan, aka Empire State), all solid two tone red/yellow14 k gold (intro 1942) This cap was reanimated in 2002 when Parker launched the Parker "51" Special Edition.
Some of these designs are very rare.
In late 1947 Parker in Newhaven, UK, started to produce Vacumatic filler Parker "51"'s, although no double jewelled pens were offered and the pens only came in the colours of India Black, Cedar Blue, Dove Grey and Cordovan Brown. But, like in the US, vacumatic fillers in Navy Grey has surfaced (there are also some examples of US-made Burgundy vacumatic filler Parker 51's.) These anomalies are most likely the result of pens having been sent back to Parker for repair, and since there were no more old stock, vacumatic filler sections and bodies were made from later aerometric coloured stock. These are relatively rare, especially the Burgundy.
Two Vacumatic filled Parker "51" in Dove Grey
and the more uncommon Navy Grey.
In 1947 a court ruled in the US that products could no longer be sold with a life-time guarantee. Parker decided to discontinue the Blue Diamond on the clips. The new clip was very similar to the early Vacumatic clips but was longer. The clip is often referred to as the "transitional clip and the pens could be categorised as the MK I-B. Both transitional and blue diamond clips clips offered until 1948, while Parker cleaned out old stock. These clips were also fitted to all vacumatic filler parker 51's made in the UK, no English blue diamond caps were produced.
The MKII pens of course had a brand new filling system that was to be adopted by virtually all Parkers in the future, the Aerometric. Almost all pens had to have moving parts (well, all until the Parker 61) to make the filling easy. Most European pens had screw or pump plungers (Mont Blanc, Pelikan etc) while the American pen companies preferred rubber sacs with different levers or plungers. These rubber sacs inevitably rotted away in time due to the acid in the ink. When this happened a lot of clothes got destroyed and the pen companies all had special departments that delt with paying for clothes ruined by their product.
A collection of Parker "51" MKIII/IV in standard and uncommon colours.
The barrel colours were:
Midnight Blue (aka Dark Blue)
Teal Blue (aka Turqoise)
Plum (aka Aubergine) The MKII type 2 pens were not produced in this colour
Demonstrator. Not produced in the Demi-size.
Also in 1948 The Parker "51" Signet was introduced with an all GF cap and barrel with vertical lines. It changed name to Insignia in 1957 and both names are used by collector's.
In 1949 the Parker "51" Presidential was introduced in solid gold. The Demi pens were not made in this style. From 1950 the single "year" digit on the body became 2 digits. "MADE IN U.S.A. 50"
Also in 1950 the Parker "51" Flighter was introduced. This pen was made of steel with GF trim and survided until 1960. In the late 1950's the gold cap ring was deleted from the Flighter pen.
A Signet/Insignia and a Flighter Parker "51".
Another Parker "51" was also added to the series in 1950, the Parker "51" Special. This had the aerometric filling system but in the manner of the Demi "51" with a U-shaped pressure bar. The big difference was that it sported an octanium (eight metal alloy) nib rather than one made of gold and it came with a shiny chrome cap only (the Standard Parker "51" were made in a matte chrome design). The cap jewel or clip screw, was made in black (while the Standard had a pearl coloured plastic)The "51" Special initially came in four colours, Green being a later fifth addition to the line. Black Grey Burgundy Blue Green.
n 1954 the engraving Made In USA was added to the back of the cap. In 1956 the ink Superchrome engraving on the metal filler sleeve with filling instructions was replaced with Parker ink. In 1957 Introduced the Parker "51" Insignia but this was really only a renamed Signet. In 1958 Parker tried a the cartridge/converter filling system on some Parker "51's" but this didn't sell well at all so it was discontinued around 1960, making these pens rather hard to find. The filling system was instead moved to the Parker 45, introduced in 1960. Also in 1960 Parker stopped imprinting the the year of making on the nib and body on European made (and Canadian?) pens. The same year the additional logo with the arrow through a circle was added to the cap, aka the "halo" logo, while the Demi Parker "51" was discontinued.
Parker "51" Cartridge filler.
Mark IV (Early 1970's-mid 1970's) Still looked a lot like the Parker 61. Cap screw now in metal, section ring wider again.
In 2002 Parker launched a retro model, the Parker "51" Special Edition in one of its rarest finishes, the Empire State Building etched cap.
Read more about the great "51" in David and Mark Shepherds book "Parker 51"
Maybe the most sought for caps of the Parker "51",
the Empire State in solid two-tone gold.
Perhaps rarer than the above caps are the "Fish Scale" caps in Solid gold.
A fantastic collection of double-jewelled Vacumatic filler Parker "51" 's" with rare caps.
From the top: India Black, Cordovan Brown (aka Burgundy), Dove Grey, Cedar Blue, Nassau Green (aka Sage), Mustard (aka Yellowstone) and Tan (aka Buckskin Beige).
The three bottom ones being the rarest colours.
Vintage Vacuums: Older Than Dirt (Almost)
If you’re a lover of antiques, you won’t be surprised to hear that vintage vacuum cleaners have gained considerable retro appeal in the past decade. Besides making beautiful display items, the irresistible story behind these favored appliances has added to their charm as a collector’s item over the years.
The transformation timeline of the vacuum cleaner as a household appliance spans over 150 years. From being towed by horse-carts, to hovering over floors like a spacecraft in movies like Star Wars, here are the top collectable vacuum cleaners among collectors today.
1. Electrolux 1950s model
Swedish-based company Electrolux has produced vacuums since 1918. In the 1960s, the company successfully advertised its machines in Britain by using the slogan "Nothing sucks like an Electrolux". The word ‘sucks’ had a significantly negative association in the United States at the time, which lead many to believe that the slogan was a branding mistake. The campaign was however well planned and aimed to pull the attention of consumers, which it successfully did! Electrolux remains on the forefront of vacuum cleaning today.
Phillip Douglas Parady
Starting in 1934, at the age of 12, Phillip Douglas Parady spent four summers attending Boys Sessions in July at YMCA Camp Takodah.
/> Elsie Crowninshield in her kitchen at Camp
That same year, Mrs. Kate Davis donated a small patch of land, which would be named for her late husband, on the western side of the Y’s rapidly expanding property. Phillip returned to camp in 1935, the year Elsie Crowninshield came from Northfield Seminary for Young Girls to start her long career as our legendary cook and divisional namesake. In 1936, Takodah purchased its first sailboat and Phillip was likely one of the earliest campers to use it. By the time 1937 rolled around, no one at camp, including Phillip, knew that the following year the campus would be completely transformed by the Great New England Hurricane.
/> Phillip and his little sisters
As Phillip matured, he took every chance he could to learn, grow, develop, and shape himself into an individual of tremendous personal character. He was close with his family, especially his mother, Dorothy, and his sisters. A quote in his yearbook entry for the Keene High School Salmagundi read:“what should a man do, but be merry?”
And that’s exactly how “Phil” lived his life.
He was a cheerleader, a yearbook board member and a school business manager. He was an active participant in the Biology Club, Dramatic Club, French Club, the band, orchestra, and DeMolay International, where he was a recognized, state-wide Past Master Counselor. After graduation in May 0f 1940, he worked in the office of an insurance company that is still located in downtown Keene, New Hampshire.
Over the course of the next year and a half, Phillip watched closely as Europe was plunged into chaos and conflict. The Axis powers were posing an increasing threat to the stability of freedom and democracy around the world. From newsreels to newspapers, the writing was on the wall. And then, one cold day in early December 1941, Phillip picked up a copy of the Keene Evening Sentinel and he immediately knew what he had to do.
On 31 December 1941, Phillip, like so many other brave men around the country at that time, enlisted in the United States Navy in Springfield, Massachusetts. He was 5″ tall and weighed just 125 pounds.
After taking a few days to get his affairs in order, he set off for war deployment with a patriotic mindset and a few precious photos including one picture of his longtime girlfriend Frances Paula Kelly, affectionately known as “Puggy,” and one picture of his dearest Mother. At Phillip’s request, Dorothy had taken the photo for her son with a local photographer even though money was limited for the family as the region continued to recover from the economic depression.
After all, she clearly understood where Phillip was going and what price he could pay. Dorothy, like so many other brave mothers around the country at that time, made sure her son had as best a sendoff as she could possibly provide.
Wyoming after her conversion into a training ship
Phillip processed through Newport, Rhode Island, on 1 January 1942 where he qualified as an Apprentice Seaman. His pay was $21 per month and he was quickly assigned duty in USS Wyoming, an old battleship originally commissioned in 1911. Unlike many of his compatriots, Phillip did not attend standard military basic training. Instead, after reporting aboard the training ship on 22 January 1942, he learned by doing.
Hundreds of new Sailors, including Phillip, learned Navy customs and courtesies, seamanship and basic naval combat skills which included operating .50 caliber anti-aircraft guns and firing the larger, more complex 5-inch dual-purpose guns.
During this training period, Sailors were constantly tested and evaluated, with those scoring the highest assigned to the most challenging and technically-demanding rates. Wyoming spent so much time operating out of Norfolk, Virginia, that summer that she earned the nickname “Chesapeake Raider.”
Phillip and his mother (left) and Phillip with Puggy (right)
That summer, after being promoted to Seaman Apprentice second class, Phillip took his shore leave at home where he spent time with Dorothy and Puggy. He was proud to show off his smart looking Navy uniform. While she was equally proud to see it, Phillip noticed that the uniform also made his mother fall quiet as she contemplated his role in the rapidly escalating and dangerous war.
In the fall of 1942, Phillip attended Quartermaster “C” school in Newport, RI. He learned navigation, chart reading, compass and gyro operation, ship steering, watch duties and keeping official logs and records. He was promoted to Quartermaster third class on 24 November 1942.
Three days later, Phillip transferred to the submarine training school in New London, CT where he was subjected to an intensive program meant to prepare him for a life beneath the waves. The submarine service, like aviation and intelligence, was among the most technically advanced branches in the Navy, requiring smart, adaptable enlisted Sailors.
It was a perfect match for a talented young man like Phillip.
Not only were Sailors given psychological tests to see how well they would adapt to serving in the small, cramped confines of a submarine. The men were also cross-trained in the many critical tasks needed to keep a steel submersible afloat. As the submariners used to joke, “a submarine is the only commissioned Navy warship which deliberately sinks itself,” and they want to make sure it surfaces again.
US Navy sailor practicing with a Momsen Lung during sub escape training
Phillip spent the next two months at the Basic Enlisted Submarine School, learning the varied skills needed for this hazardous, dangerous life, including stopping leaks and fighting fires – the two most dangerous threats in a submerged submarine. In typical Navy fashion, of course, the Sailors switched between calling their craft a ‘boat’ or a ‘fleet submarine,’ when it was neither of these things. Technically it was a submersible (not a true submarine), since it was powered by diesel-electric engines while on the surface. Indeed, the fleet boats spent most of their service lives cruising on the surface (since diesel engines require oxygen to burn fuel), with only short-term batteries available for power when submerged. Another nickname was “pig boat,” partly because the diesel engines “snorted like a pig.” Its main weapons were torpedoes, of which they carried a dozen or more, and a 3-inch deck gun, which could be used to attack lightly armed merchant ships when on the surface.
On 1 December 1942, Phillip completed his submarine escape tank training and was declared fit for service in submarines. Two weeks later, he started Submarine & Quartermaster, Signal School.
“Life aboard WWII submarines was brutal,” as James Elphick wrote for We Are The Mighty in 2017.
“Each crewmember had only about one cubic foot of personal storage space aboard the sub. Each crewmember also had a bunk, scattered throughout the many compartments of the boat, including in the torpedo rooms. As many as 14 men crammed into the forward torpedo room along with 16 torpedoes. A submarine of that size simply could not fit all of the necessary provisions for a long war patrol in the appropriate spaces. To accommodate, the crew stashed boxes of food and other things anywhere they would fit — the showers, the engine room, even on the deck until there was space inside to fit it all. ”
There was one upside though. Because of the dangerous and grueling nature of submarine duty, the Navy did its best to ensure that submariners got the best food the Navy had to offer. They also found room to install an ice cream freezer as a small luxury for the crew.
Successfully graduating submarine school in late March 1943, Phillip was immediately transferred to the submarine service. He departed New London on 22 March by train and reported to Receiving Ship, San Francisco four days later.
After making his way to Hawaii, he joined veteran fleet boat USS Plunger (SS-179) on 18 April 1943, just in time for three days of underway training exercises out of Submarine Base Pearl Harbor. This was also his first dive in a submarine, which is a disconcerting experience for anyone. But he didn’t panic and, after returning to port on the 20 th , he and the rest of the crew spent two days loading food, supplies and ammunition before getting underway for Plunger’s sixth war patrol (and Phillip’s first) on 23 April.
Lieutenant Commander Raymond H. Bass, a future Rear Admiral and Navy Cross recipient, was in command.
Ordered west to patrol in the Marshall Islands, Plunger first stopped at Johnston Island on the 25th, where the crew delivered mail and received fuel, oranges, and beer on Easter morning.
The beer was stored for a “steel beach picnic,” a celebratory event (two beers per man) at the Skipper’s discretion. They typically held these parties toward the end of a successful war patrol. Departing soon after, the ‘Old Man,’ as the skipper was called, put the eight officers and sixty-five enlisted men through unannounced attack drills every day, including three training dives and multiple fire control and interior communication exercises. As noted in the war patrol, the many hours of training produced dividends later that “made our pockets jingle.”
USS Plunger alongside a tender
Starting on 1 May, Plunger began to encounter Japanese aircraft patrols, each spotting forced the boat to dive to 140-feet and wait an hour before surfacing. A silver lining was the discovery (and repair) of a compressed air leak in the number 4 main ballast tank, which at 70-feet “looked like the bubble scene in ‘Fantasia’.” The crew also spent time trying to repair a broken impeller shaft in her #1 main engine and a seal in the antennae trunk popped, flooding the mast chamber with salt water.
The war diary noted that “it was not a happy day.”
Plunger then steered west by southwest to the Caroline Islands, where she patrolled north of Truk hoping to spot an expected Japanese convoy. At this stage of the war, American codebreakers were reading some Japanese encrypted radio traffic and target information was often passed on to submarine skippers. After a few fruitless days, she spotted her convoy of four merchant ships and one escort late on 8 May and spent the evening maneuvering into attack position.
At 0249 on 9 May, Plunger submerged to 35 feet and closed to attack, using radar and periscope to develop target solutions for her torpedoes. Phillip, as part of the bridge crew, would have been intimately involved in the process – either helping steer the sub, or operating the dive planes or helping with navigation and targeting. At 0315, the crew fired three torpedoes from 1,600 yards, a relatively close range, at Kunikawa Maru, a Japanese seaplane tender. The two torpedoes that hit only partially exploded (likely owing to faulty impact detonators). The tender suffered only minor damage to her port bow. The convoy escort Hiyodori, an Ōtori-class torpedo boat, retaliated with depth charges but Plunger slipped away undamaged. After reloading her torpedo tubes, the boat surfaced at 0412 and started tracking the convoy under propulsion from her three operational diesel engines.
USS Plunger surfaces near the Caroline Islands
As Plunger tried to skirt around the rear of the convoy at dawn, the Japanese saw the boat silhouetted against the horizon and began firing anti-aircraft guns. While no shots came close to hitting her, given the range was 13,000 yards, it was alarming because daylight made Plunger vulnerable to aircraft patrols. Oddly, the surface escort did not move in her direction nor did any aircraft patrols show up that day, allowing the submarine to run entirely along the convoy’s flank and take up a submerged attack position by 1547 that afternoon.
Just over an hour later, Plunger’s crew fired three torpedoes at a range of 2,200 yards at the lead ship in the starboard column, followed by a fourth at the second ship. The submarine then went all ahead full, left full rudder, to bring her stern tubes to bear. The Skipper took a quick look at the escort, about 2,500 yards off the target’s starboard quarter, before hearing torpedo hits echo through the water. He raised the periscope and saw both targets enshrouded in smoke, then saw the escort now closing Plunger’s position at speed. Commander Bass quickly ordered “take her deep” and over the next five minutes the escort dropped ten depth charges over Plunger‘s wake, though none were close enough to damage her. After waiting an hour to let things settle down, Plunger began a surface pursuit of two large ships seen on the horizon.
The chase lasted all night, as it was a cloudy, moonless evening.
Kinai Maru visible through Plunger‘s periscope
Finally, at 0503 on 10 May, Plunger fired four torpedoes at a range of only 700 yards, damaging Kinai Maru, a 8,360-ton troop transport, with three hits. Hiyodori dropped six depth charges in response, but none close. Coming up to periscope depth a few hours later, Plunger fired two torpedoes at Tatsutake Maru at 0835 as the freighter maneuvered to rescue about 400 troops and passengers from Kinai Maru. Both torpedoes hit in a white geyser of water and debris and the freighter quickly sank, exploding in an orange fireball as she slid under the surface.
With only three torpedoes left, Plunger stayed submerged and maneuvered to try and get another firing solution on the damaged Kinai Maru, then listing 10 degrees to port but not sinking. With full light, however, came Japanese search planes and “for the next hour planes were everywhere…” The Skipper, worried about possible air attacks, creeped Plunger in close for a stern shot. When the range was estimated to be 1,000 yards the Skipper raised the periscope for a final look and, as noted in the war diary, he saw “a lot of gray paint and the [Maru’s] bow. Flooded negative, ordered 90 feet and listened for a loud grating noise.” Luckily Plunger had dived fast enough and Kinai Maru passed just over her. Coming up to periscope depth 10 minutes later, Plunger fired her two stern tubes and got one hit, and then hit the freighter again with her last bow torpedo a few hours later.
The last shot hit “with the crack and reverberation of a depth charge.”
Kinai Maru listing after being hit by Plunger
Annoyingly, given that she’d taken four torpedo hits, Kinai Maru refused to sink. Given her low battery charge, Plunger moved away to surface and recharge that night. In the morning she returned at 0515 on 11 May and saw the ship abandoned, with no planes or escorts in sight. Which was true, as Hiyodori had rescued all her remaining crew and passengers and had already steered for Saipan. Plunger’s crew battle surfaced at 0546 and spent the next 30 minutes in gunnery practice, firing 180 3-inch and about 1,000 20mm shells into the freighter. Just to make sure the weapon worked, they also fired 100 rounds from the .50-caliber machine gun. Kinai Maru caught fire relatively quickly and burned for several hours before finally sinking at 0932 that morning.
Plunger‘s crew display her battleflag
With all tubes empty, Plunger steered for home. Despite losing #3 main engine on the 14 th owing to a broken blower, she moored at Pearl Harbor on 22 May. Plunger and her crew were credited with at least two ships sunk, a successful war patrol.
Given Plunger’s scheduled two weeks in the shipyard to repair her engines, Phillip was transferred to the USS Pompano (SS-181), another Porpoise-class submarine which needed replacement Sailors. While he got a few days of rest and caught up on sending some letters home, the intense pace of the submarine war meant very little downtime and within days he was helping his new crew load fresh food and supplies.
Underway for her sixth war patrol on 6 June, Lt. Cdr. Willis M. Thomas in command, Pompano proceeded to Midway Island to refuel and load fresh water before heading west to the Japanese home islands.
After an uneventful cruise in calm weather, the submarine took up her first patrol position near Tori-shima, an island about 375 miles south of Tokyo, on 19 June. Given the possibility of air patrols, the Skipper kept Pompano submerged during the day, only surfacing at night to recharge batteries and get some fresh air pumped inside the cramped, humid interior.
On 15 June, Phillip qualified as a radar operator. From that point on, he would have been in the conn alerting the Skipper to both enemy aircraft as well as surface contacts.
On 20 June, the submarine spotted 5 fishing boats nearby but did not attack to keep presence unknown. The following morning Pompano made radar contact with two freighters and an escort but could not get into firing position before dawn. Later in the day, given increasing cloud cover, the Skipper surfaced and conducted a search along probable course but never found the convoy owing to increasing rain. On 23 June, having not seen any aircraft patrols, the Skipper started surface patrols during the day. In theory this would produce more contacts, as the radar mast could be raised much higher than when submerged, but the patrol area proved stubbornly empty.
Lieutenant Commander Willis M. Thomas, USN
Over the next week Pompano only spotted ships on two occasions, a small sailing ship on the 24 th and three small fishing boats on the 29 th . At the same time, the submarine’s air search radar started to pick up enemy air patrols, forcing her to dive on three occasions. On 30 June, the Skipper sent a radio message to Hawaii asking permission to search closer to Tokyo but received no reply. Finally, on 3 July and in line with her written orders, the submarine switched her patrol area to the coast southeast of Nagoya, Japan.
On the fourth of July, while patrolling off the mouth of the Tenryu River near Hamamatsu village, the Skipper sighted a large freighter beached southwest of Kaketsuka lighthouse. This was Sagara Maru, a seaplane tender damaged and deliberately grounded ten days earlier after an attack by USS Harder (SS-257). Despite fog and rain, the Skipper closed to within 3,300 yards and conducted a night radar attack on the tender, scoring two hits out of three torpedoes fired.
Enemy ship, possibly Sagara Maru, burns on the horizon after being torpedoed by the Pompano
Sagara Maru was later written off as a total loss.
The poor weather would prove frustrating as the month wore on. Lookouts were plagued by fog and mist, the low visibility sometimes hiding Japanese air patrols. On the morning of 5 July, after moving south to Daio point near Shima, Pompano sighted a small convoy of 4 freighters, a tanker and an escorting destroyer. Unable to surface owing to daylight, she managed to close to 2,500 yards and conduct a submerged attack with four torpedoes on the last freighter in the convoy. All torpedoes missed, likely to underestimating target speed.
At 0100 on 6 July, she sighted 2 freighters by radar in the same area and tried again. Visibility was poor, but Pompano obtained a firing solution and targeted the lead freighter with three torpedoes at a range of 2,300 yards. Again, no hits, possibly due to incorrect torpedo depth settings. On 9 July, she attempted a night surface radar attack on a Japanese destroyer with two bow torpedoes. The second torpedo suffered a gyro error, broached and accidentally exploded 8 seconds after firing. Alerted, the destroyer evaded the first torpedo and dropped a few depth charges, though, once again, none were close enough to damage Pompano. On the 10 th , they tried yet another night surface attack, this time with two stern torpedoes at 2,700 yards, and both missed ahead.
For the next week Pompano’s crew remained frustrated, both by poor weather, heavy air patrols and the intermittent loss of her “SJ” surface search radar and worries over whether the targeting computer was working correctly. The torpedo maintenance crewmen spent many hours going over Pompano’s last two torpedoes, desperately trying to make sure they would run correctly.
Burning Japanese sampan after being attacked by the Pompano
The night of 17 July, Pompano closed a large fishing sampan that was tending nets with her lights on. The submarine battle surfaced and began firing 3-inch shells at 900 yards. She made 10 hits out of 17 3-inch shells fired and then opened up with two 20mm antiaircraft guns and a .50-caliber machine gun, which “made a shambles out of what the 3-inch gun left.” The sampan was left a wreck, two-thirds submerged with her fishermen crew dead or in the water.
Pompano’s final attack of the patrol took place early on 20 July, when she closed a large freighter off Daio point. The sky was clear and the seas rough, so she had difficulty staying at periscope depth. She fired her last two torpedoes at 2,400 yards but to no one’s surprise they both missed.
Sailors on the Pompano keeping watch while heading for home
Largely frustrated and unhappy with their boat, their Skipper and themselves, the crew turned for home, eventually mooring at Midway on 28 July. To Phillip, having only been exposed to Plunger’s successful patrol, the months of June and July 1943 were doubtless a morale killer. This was made worse by the realization that Pompano was ordered to stay in Midway for a refit, so there would be no Hawaiian beaches for him or his comrades. It was also depressing to learn Pompano’s last war patrol was labelled “unsuccessful,” and that “it is regretted that more damage was not inflicted upon the enemy.”
During this time, Phillip had a chance to read and respond to his mail. He received letters inquiring about his health from his mother and loving correspondance from Puggy. He carefully crafted responses so that his words would neither concern the US Navy censors nor upset the two special women in his life both of which he adored to no end.
Close to three weeks after arriving at Midway, a refitted and resupplied Pompano conducted torpedo firing and radar training with submarine rescue ship Florikan (ASR-9) south of Midway on 17 August. She then sailed for her seventh war patrol to Hokkaidō and Honshū on 20 August.
She was never heard from again.
A post-war review of Japanese records suggest Pompano likely sank Akama Maru, a 6,000-ton cargo ship, southeast of Hokkaidō on 3 September. From there, the submarine proceeded south to the northeastern coast of Honshū.
While it was initially thought that Pompano had struck a mine and sank, Japanese records indicate that on the morning of 17 September an Ominato-based floatplane spotted an oil slick two miles from Cape Shiriya Zaki. As the slick appeared to be moving faster than the current, a possible sign of a submerged submarine, the floatplane dropped two depth charges and then alerted Ominato Naval District HQ of the sighting.
Submarine chase CH-41 and patrol boat Miya Maru were dispatched to the area and at 1010, Miya Maru made three depth charge attacks. An hour later converted patrol boats Higashi-Nippon Maru and Mizuho Maru arrived and each made one additional depth charge attack. These five depth charge pattern attacks reportedly stopped the submerged target, which continued to leak oil.
Two hours later, minelayer Ashikaze arrived from Hakodate and minelayer Ishizaki from Muroran. At 1340, Ashizaki made a carefully timed depth charge run and a large quantity of oil boiled to the surface, like blood from a wounded whale. At 1450, Ishizaki made a follow-up attack, further widening the oil slick. Later in the day, Ashikazi made a final attack with a 7-depth charge pattern and reported the enemy submarine sunk.
QM3 Phillip Douglas Parady and the gallant crew of USS Pompano most likely made the supreme sacrifice just under two miles from the Japanese coast, not far from the Shiriyazaki Lighthouse.
Within a matter of weeks, she was presumed lost after failing to return to base at Midway.
Not too long after, William Ira Francis Parady, Phillip’s father, received a telegram from the Chief of Naval Personnel, that read in part:
I extend my deepest sympathy to you in your sorrow. It is hoped that you may find comfort in the knowledge that your son gave his life for his country upholding the highest traditions of the Navy.
William then took the most difficult walk of his entire life. He met Phillip’s mother and sister in downtown Keene, right near the restaurant where Dorothy worked as a bookkeeper. They crossed the street into Central Square, he asked them both to sit down, and then he delivered the awful news. The news no parent ever wants to give or receive. The news that changes families once and forever.
Phillip was missing and presumed lost at sea.
Central Square in the 1940s
It was the darkest of days for William and Dorothy. It was a conversation that never left them.
But, Dorothy, knowing that Phillip had led a merry life of optimism and happiness, thought not of herself and her own deep despair. Instead, she thought of Phillip’s precious Puggy.
Phillip had confided in her, shortly before he deployed, that he planned to give Puggy a ring upon his return and ask for her hand in marriage. And so, Dorothy, a grieving Gold Star mother suffering a loss no one should ever have to feel, immediately went to the local jeweler and purchased an engagement ring.
She brought it to Puggy, told her it was from Phillip, and proceeded to give her the terrible news. With tears flowing and sentiments of sorrow being shared, they held each other for a long time. The small golden ring, with a diamond that will last as long as Phillip’s eternal patrol, reminded Puggy of the man that brought cheer where ever he went. A man they would love forever.
A man no one would ever forget.
Phillip was posthumously awarded the Submarine Combat Patrol Insignia on 31 January 1944. He was officially declared dead and awareded the Purple Heart on 6 September 1946. He was memorialized in an extinct volcano at The Courts of the Missing along the Honolulu Memorial.
The medals he was awarded in service to a grateful nation include Combat Action Ribbon, World War II Victory Medal, American Campaign Medal, Distinguished Unit Citation, Good Conduct Medal, Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal, and a Navy Expeditionary Medal.
The USS Pompano received seven battle stars for her service in the war. Despite repeated attempts by the Navy, the wreck has never been found.
Phillip’s cenotaph at the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific
- Parady-relation family letters, clippings, interviews, and documents
- YMCA Camp Takodah Thumbnail History, Oscar & Francis Elwell, 1971. Takodah YMCA Archives.
- YMCA Camp Takodah Registration Cards. Takodah YMCA Archives.
- “The Whistling of the Winds and the Transformation of Camp Takodah” – YMCA Camp Takodah Blog, Graeme Noseworthy, 2017
- Keene Evening Sentinel
- Historical Society of Cheshire County
- Ancestry.com Records, Media, and Parady Family Trees
- Fold 3 Records, Media, and Military Documents for QM3 Phillip Douglas Parady
- Official Military Personnel Record, Department of the Navy, National Personnel Records Center, National Archives, St. Louis, MO.
- Newspaper Archives
- Submarine Force Library and Museum Association
- “Life aboard WWII submarines was brutal” – James Elphick, We Are The Mighty, 2017
- USS Plunger, Wikipedia
- Kini Maru, Wikipedia
- USS Pompano, Wikipedia
- Tatsutake, CombinedFleet.com
- Kunikawa Maru, CombinedFleet.com
- The Loss Of The USS Pompano, USS Nautilus.org
- USS Plunger, muster 30 April 1943 31 May 1943.
- USS Plunger, Sixth War Patrol Report, 23 April to 22 May 1943.
- USS Pompano, muster 30 June 1943 MIA report, 15 October 1943.
- USS Pompano, Sixth War Patrol Report, 6 June to 28 July 1943.
- USS Wyoming, muster 27 January 1942 30 June 1942 31 August 1942 30 November 1942.
- Hackett, B., Kingsepp, S., Cundall, P. (n.d.). Record of Movement, IJN Subchaser CH-41, Imperial Japanese Navy page.
- American Battle Monuments Commission
- YMCA Camp Takodah Photo Archives
- Krepps & Campbell Family Photos
- Naval History and Heritage Command
- Nelson Family Photos
- National WWII Musuem
- US Naval Institute Blog
- American Battle Monuments Commission