History Podcasts

18 August 1943

18 August 1943

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

18 August 1943

Eastern Front

Operation Kutuzov, the Soviet counterattack launched after the failure of the German offensive at Kursk, ends. Soviet troops have pushed the Germans back up to 95 miles.


Action off Horaniu, unsuccesful American attempt to prevent the Japanese from establishing a barge base at Horaniu on Vella Lavella.


German rocket research Edit

To evade the restrictions of the Treaty of Versailles (1919) the Reichswehr (the post-war German army from 1919 to 1935) studied the possibility of using rockets to compensate for the limited amount of heavy artillery allowed by the treaty. The head of the ballistics and Munitions Section, Colonel Becker suggested that short-range anti-aircraft rockets be designed and accurate, longer-range missiles should be produced to carry gas or high explosives. In 1931, Captain Walter Dornberger joined the Ordnance Department to research rocket development. Dornberger led a group of researchers through the infancy of the new technology and secured funds at the expense of other fields of research. Other scientists studied the use of rockets for maritime rescue, weather data collection, postal services across the Alps and the Atlantic and a journey to the moon. [3]

OSS Edit

The OSS received important information about the V-2 rockets and Pennemünde from the Austrian resistance group around the priest Heinrich Maier. The group, later uncovered by the Gestapo, had extensive contacts with the military, researchers, scientists and leading representatives of the German economy and in 1943 came into contact with Allen Dulles, the head of the OSS in Switzerland. [4] [5] [6] [7]

MI6 Edit

Information had reached the British Secret Intelligence Service (SIS) about German weapons development since the Oslo report of November 1939, from Royal Air Force (RAF) photo-reconnaissance photographs taken from 22 April 1943 and eavesdropping on Lieutenant-General Wilhelm Ritter von Thoma, who expressed surprise that there had been no rocket bombardment of Britain. Other prisoners of war gave various and sometimes fanciful accounts. [8] Information also came from Polish intelligence, a Danish chemical engineer and from Leon Henri Roth and Dr Schwagen Luxembourgish enrolés de force (forced labourers) who had worked at Peenemünde and smuggled out letters describing rocket research, giving conflicting accounts of the size, warhead range and means of propulsion of the device. Despite the confusion, there was little doubt that the Germans were working on a rocket and in April 1943, the Chiefs of Staff warned operational HQs of the possibility of rocket weapons. Duncan Sandys was appointed by Winston Churchill to lead an inquiry to study the information and report on counter-measures. [9]

At a meeting, Sandys introduced the aerial photographs of Peenemünde and Professor Frederick Lindemann, scientific advisor to Churchill, judged the information to be a hoax but R. V. Jones refuted Lindemann. [10] The committee recommended stopping reconnaissance flights to Peenemünde, to avoid alerting the Germans,

Peenemünde is … beyond the range of our radio navigation beams and … we must bomb by moonlight, although the German night fighters will be close at hand and it is too far to send our own. Nevertheless, we must attack it on the heaviest possible scale.

At 10 Downing St on 15 July, the Chiefs of Staff, Herbert Morrison, Lindemann and Churchill examined the bombing plan and ordered an attack as soon as the moon and weather permitted. [12]

Plan Edit

For accuracy, the raid was to take place during a full moon and the bombers would have to fly at 8,000 ft (2,400 m) instead of the normal altitude of 19,000 ft (5,800 m). Peenemünde was around 600 mi (1,000 km) from the closest British airbase, was spread over a wide area and was protected by smoke screens. All of Bomber Command was to fly on the raid and practice raids on areas similar to Peenemünde were made margins of error of up to 1,000 yd (910 m) were initially recorded — by the last this was down to 300 yd (270 m). [13] The primary objective was to kill as many personnel involved in the research and development of the V-weapons as possible, by bombing the workers' quarters. Secondary objectives were to render the research facility useless and "destroy as much of the V-weapons, related work, and documentation as possible". [14]

The aircraft from 5 Group had practised a time and distance method for bombing a distinctive point on the surface was used as a datum for the release of the bombs at a set time – and therefore distance – from it. H2S radar worked best over contrasting areas of ground and open water and 5 Group was to fly an approach run from Cape Arkona on the island of Rügen, to Thiessow to check time and heading. From Thiessow to the islet of Rüden any adjustments were to be made, followed by a timed run to Peenemünde on Usedom. [15] [16] The nature of the raid was not revealed to the aircrews in their briefing, the target was referred to as developing radar that "promises to improve greatly the German night air defence organization". To scare aircrews into making a maximum effort, Order 176 emphasised the importance of the raid: "If the attack fails. it will be repeated the next night and on ensuing nights regardless, within practicable limits, of casualties. [17] [18]

Supporting operations Edit

Whitebait (Berlin) Edit

To divert German night fighters from Operation Hydra, eight Pathfinder Force (8 Group) Mosquitoes of 139 (Jamaica) Squadron flew to Whitebait (Berlin) to simulate the opening of a Main Force raid. By imitating the typical pathfinder marking of the target, it was expected that German night fighters would be lured to Berlin. [19] At 22:56 British Double Summer Time (scheduled for 23:00), the first Mosquito was over Whitebait. Each Mosquito was to drop eight marker flares and a minimum bomb load. [20]

Intruder operations Edit

Fighter Command provided 28 Mosquito and ten Beaufighter intruders from 25, 141, 410, 418 and 605 squadrons in two waves, to attack Luftwaffe airfields at Ardorf, Stade, Jagel, Westerland and Grove, to catch night fighters taking-off and landing. Eight Handley Page Halifaxes exploited the full moon to fly supply sorties to Europe, some to the Danish resistance movement, covered by the flight of the Main Force. Five Typhoons, two Hurricanes, a Mustang and a Whirlwind were to operate just across the English Channel. [21]

First wave Edit

Throughout the attack, the master bomber (Group Captain J. H. Searby, CO of No. 83 Squadron RAF) circled over the target to call in new pathfinder markers and to direct crews as to which markers to bomb. [22] The 244 3 Group and 4 Group Stirlings and Halifaxes attacked the V-2 scientists. At 00:10 British time, the first red spot fire was started and at 00:11, sixteen blind illuminator marker aircraft commenced marking runs with white parachute flares and long-burning red target indicators (TIs). Patches of stratocumulus cloud caused uncertain visibility in the full moon and Rügen did not show as distinctly on H2S radar as expected, resulting in the red "datum lights" spot fires to be placed on the northern tip of Peenemünde Hook instead of burning as planned for ten minutes on the northern edge of Rügen. [23]

The 2 mi (3.2 km) error caused early yellow TIs to be dropped at the Trassenheide forced labour camp. Within three minutes, the master bomber noticed a yellow marker for the scientists' settlement "very well placed" and ordered more yellows as close as possible four of six were accurate, as well as three backer-up green indicators. At 00:27, the first wave turned for home after encountering some flak, including a few heavy anti-aircraft guns on a ship 1 mi (1.6 km) offshore and guns on the western side of the peninsula. One third of the aircraft in the wave bombed Trassenheide and killed at least 500 enslaved workers before the accurate markers on the housing estate drew the bombing onto the target. [23] About 75 per cent of the buildings were destroyed but only about 170 of the 4,000 people attacked were killed, because the soft ground muffled bomb explosions and air raid shelters in the estate had been well built. Dr Walter Thiel, the chief engineer of rocket motors and Dr Erich Walther, chief engineer of the rocket factory, were killed. [24]

Second wave Edit

The attack by 131 1 Group aircraft, 113 Lancasters, 6 Pathfinder Shifters and 12 Pathfinder Backers-Up began at 12:31 a.m. to destroy the V2 works, in two buildings about 300 yd (270 m) long. The bombers carried a minimum of ninety 4,000 lb (1,814 kg) and just under seven hundred 1,000 lb (454 kg) bombs. The pathfinders had to move the marking from the first wave targets to the new ones, which had never been tried before. Each of the six pathfinder squadrons provided one aircraft as a shifter, which were to fly at 12,000 ft (3,700 m) with their bomb-sights set for 5,000 ft (1,500 m), which would make the markers land a mile short of the aiming point. Just before the first wave finished bombing, the Pathfinder Shifters would aim their red target indicators at the green indicators dropped by the first wave backers-up, ensuring that their red markers would land on the new aiming point, a mile short of the previous one. The green markers had been laid accurately but one Pathfinder Shifter dropped .75 mi (1.21 km) short and three overshot by the same distance. The last shifter marked accurately and Searby warned the second wave to ignore the misplaced markers. [25] The bombing hit a building used to store rockets, destroying the roof and the contents. During the attack, a high wind blew target markers eastwards, leading to some aircraft bombing the sea. [26]

Third wave Edit

The third wave was made up of 117 Lancasters of 5 Group and 52 Halifax and nine Lancaster bombers of 6 Group, which attacked the experimental works, an area containing about 70 small buildings in which the scientific equipment and data were stored, along with the homes of Dornberger and his deputy Wernher von Braun. The wave arrived thirty minutes after the beginning of the attack the crews found smoke from the bombing and the German smoke screen covered the target, clouds were forming and night-fighters decoyed to Berlin had arrived. The Canadian crews of 6 Group bombed the Pathfinder markers, some of which had drifted east or south and the 5 Group crews made time-and-distance runs, using Rügen as the datum to discover the wind and then flying at a speed which covered the 4 mi (6.4 km) to the target in slightly more than 60 seconds. The crews had been ordered to bomb on markers unless it was obvious that they were in the wrong place or were given directions by the master bomber. [26] The bombers flew 20 or even 30 seconds past the timing point to the visible and inaccurate green markers from the six "shifters" and three backers-up, their bombs landing 2,000–3,000 yd (1.1–1.7 mi 1.8–2.7 km) beyond the development works in the concentration camp. At 00:55, due to timing errors, 35 stragglers were still waiting to bomb. [27] The wind tunnel and telemetry block were missed but one third of the buildings were hit, including the HQ and the design block. German night-fighters shot down 28 bombers in about fifteen minutes, some by aircraft carrying the new upward-firing Schräge Musik. The bombers shot down five of the German fighters. [26]

Luftwaffe Edit

The Luftwaffe dispatched 213 night fighters once the British bombers made landfall over Denmark, 158 conventional twin-engined aircraft and 55 single-engined Wilde Sau (Wild Boar) Bf 109 and Fw 190 fighters. [28]

Analysis Edit

In 1943, Joseph Goebbels wrote of a delay of six to eight weeks and the United States Strategic Bombing Survey (1945) called the raid "not effective", Thiel and Walther were killed when they were buried in one of the [air-raid] trenches but the wind tunnel and telemetry block were untouched. [29] [30]

In volume II of The Strategic Air Offensive against Germany (1961) part of the official History of the Second World War, Webster and Frankland wrote that Dornberger thought that the bombing delayed the A4 (V2) project by four to six weeks, which had been followed by many later accounts but that this was anecdotal. [31] The official historians wrote that the transfer of production to the Harz mountains and testing to Poland must have caused some delay in remedying the numerous design failings of the device and that the killing of Thiel and Walther might have made things worse. The attack on Peenemünde and other sites might have delayed the V2 offensive by two months. [32] Although research and development continued almost immediately and test launches resumed on October 6, plans for some German V-2 facilities were changed after Hydra the unfinished production plant for V-2s was moved to the Mittelwerk. [33]

In 2006, Adam Tooze called the bombing highly successful and that the transfer of the production of 12,000 A4 missiles to Thuringia was a Herculean task. [34]

Casualties Edit

In the 2006 edition of his book, Martin Middlebrook wrote that 23 of the 45 huts at the Trassenheide labour camp were destroyed and that at least 500 and possibly 600 slave workers were killed in the bombing. [35] Bomber Command suffered the loss of 6.7 percent of the aircraft dispatched, most of these in the third wave. After the Luftwaffe realised that the attack on Berlin was a diversion, about 30 Focke-Wulf Fw 190 Wilde Sau (wild boar) night fighters flew to the Baltic coast and shot down 29 of the 40 bombers lost Leutnant Peter Erhardt, a Staffelkapitän and Unteroffizier Walter Höker flew the first operational Schräge Musik sorties in two Bf 110s. [36] Fifteen British and Canadian airmen who were killed on the raid were buried by the Germans in unmarked graves within the secure perimeter. Their recovery at the end of the war was prevented by the Russians authorities and the bodies remain there to this day. [37] On 19 August, after the success of the diversion on Whitebait, the Luftwaffe chief of staff, General Hans Jeschonnek, shot and killed himself. [38]

Camouflage Edit

After Operation Hydra, the Germans fabricated signs of bomb damage on Peenemünde by creating craters in the sand (particularly near the wind tunnel), blowing-up lightly damaged and minor buildings and according to Peenemünde scientist Siegfried Winter, "We … climbed on to the roofs … and painted black and white lines to simulate charred beams." Operation Hydra also included the use of bombs with timers set for up to three days, so along with bombs that had not detonated (because of the sandy soil), explosions well after the attack were not uncommon and hampered German salvage efforts. [39]

August 18, 1943 in History

Carl Hubbell History:
November 21, 1988 - Carl Hubbell, pitcher for the New York Giants-253 wins, 2.97 lifetime ERA, dies in an auto accident
May 31, 1937 - Brooklyn Dodgers snap New York Giant Carl Hubbell's 24-game winning streak
May 30, 1937 - Pitcher Carl Hubbell's 24th consecutive victory
May 30, 1937 - 61,756, 2nd-largest crowd in Polo Grounds history, sees Dodgers ends Carl Hubbell's consecutive-game winning streak at 24
May 27, 1937 - Carl Hubbell wins his 24th consecutive game (since July 17, 1936)
October 20, 1936 - Carl Hubbell, 26-6, edges out Dizzy Dean, 24-13, for MVP honors in NL
September 23, 1936 - Giants Carl Hubbell notches his 16th en route to 24 consecutive wins
July 17, 1936 - Carl Hubbell begins winning streak, beating Pittsburgh 6-0,
April 23, 1936 - Carl Hubbell's 1st start of season is his 17th straight win
July 10, 1934 - Carl Hubbell strikes out Ruth, Gehrig and Foxx in All star game
January 17, 1934 - Carl Hubbell, NL MVP winner, gets $18,000 contract by the New York Giants
January 17, 1934 - New York Giants reward MVP pitcher Carl Hubbell with $18,000 contract
August 1, 1933 - Carl Hubbell sets record of consecutive scoreless innings (45 1/3)
July 2, 1933 - Carl Hubbell shuts-out Cards 1-0 in 18 innings without a walk
May 9, 1929 - New York Giant Carl Hubbell no-hits Pittsburgh Pirates
May 8, 1929 - New York Giant Carl Hubbell no-hits Pirates, 11-0
August 11, 1928 - Carl Hubbell's 1st major league victory is a 4-0 shutout of Phils
June 22, 1903 - Carl Hubbell, born in Carthage, Missouri, pitcher for the New York Giants-253 wins, 2.97 lifetime ERA

More Notable Events on August 18:
1986 John Tesh's 1st appearance on Entertainment Tonight
1982 Pete Rose sets record with his 13,941st plate appearance
1964 South Africa banned from Olympic Games because of apartheid policies
1930 Eastern Airlines begins passenger service
1834 Mount Vesuvius erupts

Bypaths of Kansas History - August 1943

From the Kansas City (Mo.) Daily Journal of Commerce, January 9, 1859.

Passengers arriving in the eastern stages on Friday evening, report to Mr. Foster, our post office clerk, that six bags of mail matter were thrown off from the stage between Tipton and Independence, to make room for passengers. Henry M. Stanley, who later was to find Livingstone in Africa, visited western Kansas during the Indian campaigns of 1867. In his My Early Travels and Adventures in America and Asia (1895), v. I, p. 49, he wrote:

It has frequently been the custom for overloaded stages to dump the mail into some of the creeks that run across the road. In Plum creek, above Fort Larned, when the expedition passed over it, were found five bags of mail matter, and one sack of books, which consisted fortunately of only agricultural reports.


From the New York Daily Tribune, March 21, 1859.

OUTFIT FOR THE GOLD MINES.-- We republish from the St. Joseph (Mo.) Gazette the following list of articles necessary for an outfit to the gold mines. It has been carefully prepared by men of large experience in frontier life, and all who intend to emigrate will do well to be guided by it. Of course other little conveniences and luxuries will be added according to the taste of emigrants. A few good books should not be omitted, and an order for the Tribune should by no means be forgotten.

Traveling and Camp Outfit for Four Men.-3 yoke of oxen, 1 wagon, covers, etc. 1 tent, 3 augurs, 1 chisel, 1 ax, 1 handsaw, 1 nail hatchet, 1 drawing knife, 11/2-inch file, 6 lbs. nails, coffee boiler, 1 coffee mill, 1 camp kettle, 1 frying pan, 1 skillet or oven, 1 bread pan, 6 coffee cups, 6 tin plates, 1 set of knives and forks, 1 set of spoons, 1 water keg, 1 water bucket, 1 water dipper, 1 lantern, 10 lbs. candles, 2 dozen boxes matches, 25 lbs. soap, 1 grass, scythe and snath.

Mining Tools, For Each Man.-2 steel picks, 1 round point shovel, 1 gold pan, 1 large tin-dipper, 1 iron scraper for cleaning up rockers, 1 strong wooden bucket, 1 sieve for cleaning gold, 1 blow pan, perforated sheet iron for long toms and rockers, irons for axles for wheelbarrows, leather for pump valves, heavy drilling or sail duck for hose, palm, sail needles, twine, tacks, gold scales and weights.

Provisions For Four Men, Six Months.--800 lbs. flour, 400 do. bacon, 200 do. sugar, 50 do. coffee, 6 do. tea, 40 do. dried fruit, 30 do. rice, 60 do. beans, 30 gals. molasses, 200 lbs. crackers and hard bread, 10 do. soda or baking


powders, 2 do. pepper, 30 do. salt, 25 do. lard, 4 gals. pickles, 3 boxes mustard, 2 gals. vinegar, 2 do. brandy.

Luxuries.-Oysters, fresh peaches, sardines, catsup, pepper sauce, tobacco, cigars, pipes, &c.

Each man should take 1 gun, 1 pistol, or revolver, 2 butcher-knives, belt and scabbard, powder, lead, shot and caps, 2 pair heavy Mackinaw blankets, 3 heavy flannel overshirts, 3 pair heavy pants, 3 pair heavy boots, 3 pair heavy socks, 2 pair heavy coats, 3 pair woolen drawers, 1 hat, 1 cap, 1 comfort, 1 vest, 2 pair gloves, 3 silk handkerchiefs, buttons, thread, &c.

From The Daily Times, Leavenworth, June 10, 1859.

"INFIT" FROM THE MINES.-Some waggish contemporary-we know not what one gives the "infit" of a Pike's Peaker, in contradistinction to the "outfit." Some months since, so says the aforesaid exchange, we were giving tables, showing items to constitute a complete outfit to Pike's Peak. We are now able to give a schedule of an infit as we saw exemplified yesterday by one who has been there and got back:

1 ragged coat, with collar and tail torn off 1 pair pants, hanging together by shreds
1 hat, barrin' the rim
1 1/2 shoes, looking like fried bacon rind 11/4 lbs. raw beans
1 1/2 pints parched corn.

In answer to our interrogatory whether he designed returning to Pike's Peak shortly, our traveler responded, "not by a jug-full!"

The Times bears witness to the truth of the "infit." We have seen emigrants by hundreds exactly thus accoutred.


From the White Cloud Kansas Chief, April 28, 1859.

OUTFIT AND WAYS OF A KANSAS JUDGE.-Persons at a distance may not generally know what kind of an outfit is required for a Kansas judge and we cannot enlighten them better than by mentioning that of Judge [John] Pettit, our new judge, as taken down by an informant, upon the judge's late visit to Hiawatha.

Himself and suite arrived in town, on Sunday evening. His suite, or bodyguard, consisted of a clerk, who rode in the buggy with him, and several Democratic lawyers following after. Arriving in town, they were at a loss to find the hotel, and the judge sent his clerk out to hunt one. That worthy started out, with a revolver in his hand, which he carried in plain sight wherever he went, no doubt looking every moment to be set upon by some ruffian Abolitionist. Finding the hotel, they put up, and occupied all their spare time in discussing politics, and devising plans to give the Democratic party control of the territory once more. One of the lawyers got drunk, and spewed at a terrible rate. On the following day, our informant made an excuse to go into the judge's private room, where he glanced around, and found it to contain the following legal documents one keg of brandy, four revolvers, four bowie knives, three flasks of brandy, and a quantity of cigars and tobacco! When the judge started away, he took all these articles with him in his buggy. When the landlord harnessed the horse to the buggy, the animal took a balking fit, and the man undertook to drive him around awhile, to get him in traveling condition. The judge seeing this, commenced cursing the landlord, pouring forth the oaths as if he were doing it by note, raving loud enough to be heard over the whole town, and giving vent to blasphemies horrible enough to make the hair stand on the head of a heathen

Such is a fair specimen of federal office-holders in Kansas. Can any decent man blame the people of Kansas for arraying themselves against them? To think of a territorial judge going about with his buggy loaded down with brandy, revolvers and bowie knives, and raving and cursing because a man undertakes to do him a favor his clerk carrying a revolver through the street, on Sunday, to hunt a hotel and one of his particular friends getting beastly drunk, and puking all over town!


From the Western Journal of Commerce, Kansas City, Mo., May 21,1859.

We give below a letter just received from Bourassa, the Pottawatomie Indian. His account is interesting, as coming from an Indian, and gives an insight into their feeling in such matters:


I now will write you a notice of my people killing two Pawnees, in their own reserve.

The Pottawatomies killed two Pawnees on the 30th day of April, in their own reserve they came to steal ponies, and also as a war party, probably to kill the Pike's Peakers, on their intended march to the gold mines. These two horse thieves were killed on the road, that leads from Topeka to Wahbahn-se. The Pottawatomies had lost seven horses curiously from their midst -having accidentally found them tied up in the bushes-they mistrusted some one was about stealing. So they looked for tracks and signs sure enough they discovered cautious tracks and camp signs of some Indians.

Shaw-gene called together several braves and started in search of them, with the determination to find out what tribe had committed the depredation. In a short time, the keen eyed brave Sho-min, fell on fresh tracks-the thieves having passed on high and low lands, in the beds of creeks, etc., to avoid detection.

After tracking them for several hours, they fell on the thieves-who were apparently watching the public road. Sho-min being the first man who saw them, he killed one, and the young men pitched in and soon dispatched the other marauder. They proved to be Pawnees, one gave up, the other showed fight, but it was in vain, he did not even have time to shoot his first arrow, ere he was laid low by the well aimed rifle, and his head cut off before he


quit kicking. These Pawnees cried out, they were Pawnees, but it done no good, for the fatal shot was made.
These men were not only horse thieves, but they were a regular war party, for they had a war sac and war pipe, which are a token of war. So the Pottawatomies fought on the defensive. If these Pawnees had killed a white man in our reserve, and on the public road, the blame might have fell on the Pottawatomies. So, in a few days after, the Pottawatomies danced the scalp dance, in Shaw-gene's village, according to their custom.
Pawnees are remarkably noted for committing depredations on all the tribes in their reach, even with those they have entered into bonds of peace and friendship, even upon the people of the United States. They had made such arrangements with the Pottawatomies, but they disregarded them.
It is very curious, what constitutes bravery and honor among the Pawnees, for with them, horse stealing is considered more honorable and brave, than to kill an enemy so it is, that they get killed and scalped so frequently, by nearly all the other tribes. Yours,


Reprinted from the Rocky Mountain News, Cherry Creek, Kansas territory, in the Leavenworth Weekly Herald, June 4, 1859.
Our city and vicinity (the Denver area) has been visited recently by great numbers of the native population. By far the greater number are Cheyennes, Arapahoes and Apaches, coming in large parties, erecting their lodges in our midst, they spend a few days and then move on to other hunting grounds. We have also noticed small delegates of Comanches, Kioways, Siouxs and Utes. All seem friendly and well disposed toward the white settlers. Nearly all these Indians are tall and finely formed, being much superior in general appearance and in their manner and mode of living to the Indians of the immediate frontier.
Little Raven paid our office a visit a day or two since he looked upon the various operations and minutia of the office with interested wonder and astonishment, and when he had seen the movements of the press and the printed sheets therefrom, and the whole operation was explained to him, he ejaculated, "Big Medicine."

From the Marysville Enterprise, May 11, 1867.
There have been several "Los!" from the Otoe tribe, in town the past week. One "Big Ingun" came into the Enterprise office, and seeing our cans of fancy colored inks, imagined them to be "war paint," and expressed a desire to be painted up. Our Junior Devil embellished his "noble" countenance with a variety of figures in carmine, and furnished him with a beautiful pair of Prussian blue moustaches) Unless that Indian spends a "heap" of money for soap during the next few weeks, he'll stay painted.



From the New York Daily Tribune, July 9, 1859.
The Cleveland Leader announces the arrival in that city of Mr. George Raymond, all the way from Salt Lake City, via Cherry Creek mines and Kansas, having come the entire distance, driving a span of elk before a wagon. The elk in question are only three years old, an age at which horses are not at all fit for use, yet Mr. Raymond assures us that he actually traveled as fast as 100 miles in a single day. Mr. R. is on his way to Vermont with his novel team. The elk have now upon their heads horns three feet in length, which have been only six weeks in growing.


From the Leavenworth Herald, March 17, 1860.
Napoleon I was wont to remark that "the sight of soldiers makes soldiers," and yesterday we fully realized its truth when we witnessed the military parade at Fort Leavenworth. "The pomp and circumstance of glorious war" possesses an attraction to which the human heart is peculiarly susceptible, and we found ourselves a willing captive to the grandeur and magnificence of the "tented field."
The weather was propitious in the highest degree. The rays of the sun, tempered by a cool and gentle breeze, shone brightly upon the uniforms of the officers and soldiers, and glistened upon burnished weapons, while good feeling, smiles and happy faces ruled the day.
The exercises took place in the large meadow north of the fort, which is admirably adapted for the purpose in pleasant weather. All the troops at the station were out, in parade dress consisting of Magruder's battery, Barry's battery, Companies E and F, 2nd artillery, and Company H, 2nd infantry all under the command of Colonel Magruder. Among the officers who took active part in the exercises we observed Captain Barry, Captain Totten, and Lieutenants Beckwith, Robinson and Lee.
Though we paid close attention to the exercises, our pen would certainly fail at a detailed description. The movements were executed with a precision and swiftness which challenge any comparison the maneuvering being the same as executed upon the field of battle. It was truly an inspiring sight, just such a one as excites the spectator's patriotism to fever heat. The blasts of the bugles, the roll of the drums, the measured tread of infantry, the thundering rush of artillery, the rolling fire of musketry, and the roar of the cannon, all united, forced upon us a retrospect of the bloody drama of war, enacted during our century, and we wandered from Austerlitz, Marengo and Waterloo, to the fields of Mexico, and again to Montebello and Solferino, in sunny Italy.
The troops certainly exhibited great proficiency, if we are permitted to judge, and reflect much credit upon the officers who have them in charge, as well as upon the country. We doubt whether better or more efficient batteries were ever upon the field of battle than the two now at Fort Leavenworth-Magruder's and Barry's.


The taste and skill of Colonel Magruder in getting up these military displays, is certainly commendable. They are a new feature at the fort, and we are pleased to know that they are received with general favor. They enable the public to form a correct estimate of the men who protect our country in the hour of trial, and the skill and daring of those who lead where danger calls. On behalf of our .citizens, we tender thanks to Colonel Magruder for the grand Matinee Militaire of Tuesday. May it not be the last. The Colonel's marquee abounded with the delicacies requisite for the occasion, and the handsome manner in which he did the honors, when not engaged in the field, were well calculated to convey a favorable impression. We say this in his behalf, without wishing to detract in the least from the distinguished consideration due Captain Barry and other officers, who did the amiable quite handsomely.
A large number of ladies and gentlemen from the city and fort were present. They all appeared to enjoy the opportunity, and expressed much gratification at being permitted to witness the display.

From The Kansas State Journal, Lawrence, July 24, 1862.
An Indian woman was lately condemned to death, and subsequently shot by the Indians still encamped near Leroy. The charge against her was that of witchcraft. The authorities in charge of those Indians have distinctly and most emphatically given them to understand that another such occurrence will not be tolerated, and the chief executioner has been arrested by the United States marshal and is now held in custody. So says the Burlington Register.


From The Smoky Hill and Republican Union, Junction City, June 18, 1864.
We learn from the Atchison Free Press

that a mutiny took place on the Montana, on Saturday morning, shortly after she left St. Joseph. The deck hands got into a difficulty with the Negro cooks, and commenced an attack upon them. The cooks in turn threw hot water upon the deck hands, who finally overpowered the Negroes, and they fled to the cabin above. The deck hands armed themselves with knives and followed the Negroes. They stabbed the steward and another Negro, the former in four different places. He crawled under the table, where the roustabouts continued to beat him, when the mate arrived with a stick of wood and knocked down three or four of the mutineers. They then retreated to the lower deck, devoured the breakfast intended for the passengers, and held high carnival until the boat landed at a woodyard, when the whole party, eighteen in number, jumped ashore. The passengers were obliged to wood up, and the boat was compelled to leave without a crew.


From the Junction City Union, September 5, 1868. Trains going west now lie over at Ellsworth during the night, owing to the Indian scare. They run to Hays by ten o'clock the next morning.

From the Dodge City Times, June 1, 1878.
The fuel question is one of great moment in this country. The Wichita Eagle describes a Farmer's Fuel Press for sale in that city. It rapidly and conveniently compresses slough grass, corn stalks, sunflowers, husks, etc., into good, convenient shape for stove fuel. It makes fuel easier and faster than can be made out of wood after it has been cut and hauled, even if wood was obtainable. The machine costs $25 and freight. Two men can put up one cord and a half in one hour. It also cuts feed and makes a good sorghum mill, the sorghum stalks being converted into fuel as they leave the machine. The machines are made of iron.


From The Dickinson County Chronicle, Abilene, June 28, 1878.
Hug socials are now the rage. It costs ten cents to hug any one between fifteen and twenty, five cents from twenty to thirty, one dollar to hug another man's wife, old maids two for a nickel, while female lecturers are free with a chromo thrown in. At these prices it is said that the old maids are most productive, because they can stand so much of it without getting tired. A fortune awaits the organization that will get up the first hug social in Abilene.

This department was skeptical of the following story published in The Mercury, Manhattan, May 28, 1884, until Walter E. McKeen of Manhattan came along with an affidavit by his fellow townsman, Louis H. Woodman, who remembers the facts, as stated, to be true.
The express from the midnight train had been landed upon the depot, and the messenger had just finished his lonely task of wheeling it into the store room, when he heard a voice interrogate, "are you through?" The expressman started, and looked wildly around, but could not see anybody, and was just concluding that he was mistaken, when another outbreak brought him to his wits and raised his hair a little higher: "I say, hurry up that checking and turn me over." The expressman had been in tight places-had witnessed many a wreck on the railroad, but in all his experience he never felt so pale as at that moment, but was relieved by, "say, cast your eye down to your right hoof." On doing as commanded, he discovered a human face peering out a


square opening in a box, "can't you turn me over, I don't want to stand on my head all night." The expressman rushed to the night operator and the two with a thirty-two caliber and the handle of a letter press, returned and standing the box on the other side, demanded an explanation of the situation "Well, look on your book and you'll see I'm all right." The book showed an entry: "To W. C. Buell, Manhattan, Kansas, one box merchandise, from Chicago, collect charges, $925." This entry corresponded with address on the box, but did not explain the presence of a man as merchandise. A demand was then made for the occupant of the box to explain matters or they would open fire upon it. "Don't shoot, I can explain everything satisfactorily, if you will open up." It was with considerable timidity and fearfulness that the expressman opened the box while the telegraph operator kept it covered with the pistol. On being released the occupant seated himself on his late habitation, of which the following is a summary:

P>My name is Horace Buell, and I have relatives living in Manhattan. From my early youth I have displayed wonderful talent for art. Believing that there was a field open for me in the larger cities I sought a situation, and for a time was successful, but I lost my health, and being severely distressed and in need, resolved to return home. Too proud to write for means to defray my expenses, I hit upon the plan which has landed me here tonight, thirty-six hours from Chicago. The way I managed to get billed out of the city was very easy. I called at the main office and told them I had a box which I wished to ship to Manhattan, giving instructions where it could be found. I then packed myself in it and was soon speeding westward. Once I was left in a car for some time alone, and had a chance to stretch myself. Before entering the box I supplied myself with sufficient crackers and cheese to sustain me for four days, and suffered only for water. I don't feel much worse for the trip, it was an easy matter to brace myself in the box so I would not be injured.

The contents then expressed a disposition to saunter up town and inform its friends of safe arrival, but the messenger questioned the propriety of this procedure, as his instructions stated positively that he would be held responsible for loss of "livestock" or other merchandise after its delivery into his hands-unless he could give satisfactory explanation. Therefore, under pressing persuasion the contents concluded to remain until morning, when a large, square store box was hauled up street by Joe Parkerson, and the contents meandered along under the protection of the messenger. The fare from Chicago to Manhattan is $17.25. The cost of the trip would foot up to

Following the eradication of smallpox, scientists and public health officials determined there was still a need to perform research using the variola virus. They agreed to reduce the number of laboratories holding stocks of variola virus to only four locations. In 1981, the four countries that either served as a WHO collaborating center or were actively working with variola virus were the United States, England, Russia, and South Africa. By 1984, England and South Africa had either destroyed their stocks or transferred them to other approved labs. There are now only two locations that officially store and handle variola virus under WHO supervision: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia, and the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology (VECTOR Institute) in Koltsovo, Russia.

Three-year-old Rahima Banu with her mother in Bangladesh. Rahima was the last known person to have had naturally acquired smallpox in the world. An 8-year-old girl named Bilkisunnessa reported the case to the local Smallpox Eradication Program team and received a 250 Taka reward. Source: CDC/World Health Organization Stanley O. Foster M.D., M.P.H.

WHO poster commemorating the eradication of smallpox in October 1979, which was officially endorsed by the 33rd World Health Assembly on May 8, 1980. Courtesy of WHO.

Related Stories

Juneteenth, an annual holiday commemorating the end of slavery in the United States, has been celebrated by African Americans since the late 1800s.

German President Calls for Peace with Russia, Eastern Europe for 80th Anniversary of Operation Barbarossa

German President Frank-Walter Steinmeier appealed for peace for the 80th anniversary of Operation Barbarossa, Nazi Germany’s invasion of the Soviet Union

MacKenzie Scott to Donate Millions to National Trust for Historic Preservation’s African American Cultural Heritage Action Fund

The Action Fund is the largest in American history dedicated to preserving African American landmarks

How Father’s Day Traces Its Roots to One Civil War Veteran

The day devoted to all things dad was kickstarted by one woman seeking to honor her Civil War veteran father

‘Bubble in the Sun’ Review: How Con Men Got RichSelling Florida Swamp Land

Two million buyers paid the price for their naiveté when the 1920s land boom collapsed

The table is sorted by date. Please refer to our development plan for future releases and an alternative view of the release history.

ReleaseRelease date
GCC 8.5 May 14, 2021
GCC 11.1 April 27, 2021
GCC 10.3 April 8, 2021
GCC 10.2 July 23, 2020
GCC 10.1 May 7, 2020
GCC 9.3 March 12, 2020
GCC 8.4 March 4, 2020
GCC 7.5 November 14, 2019
GCC 9.2 August 12, 2019
GCC 9.1 May 3, 2019
GCC 8.3 February 22, 2019
GCC 7.4 December 6, 2018
GCC 6.5 October 26, 2018
GCC 8.2 July 26, 2018
GCC 8.1 May 2, 2018
GCC 7.3 January 25, 2018
GCC 5.5 October 10, 2017
GCC 7.2 August 14, 2017
GCC 6.4 July 4, 2017
GCC 7.1 May 2, 2017
GCC 6.3 December 21, 2016
GCC 6.2 August 22, 2016
GCC 4.9.4 August 3, 2016
GCC 5.4 June 3, 2016
GCC 6.1 April 27, 2016
GCC 5.3 December 4, 2015
GCC 5.2 July 16, 2015
GCC 4.9.3 June 26, 2015
GCC 4.8.5 June 23, 2015
GCC 5.1 April 22, 2015
GCC 4.8.4 December 19, 2014
GCC 4.9.2 October 30, 2014
GCC 4.9.1 July 16, 2014
GCC 4.7.4 June 12, 2014
GCC 4.8.3 May 22, 2014
GCC 4.9.0 April 22, 2014
GCC 4.8.2 October 16, 2013
GCC 4.8.1 May 31, 2013
GCC 4.6.4 April 12, 2013
GCC 4.7.3 April 11, 2013
GCC 4.8.0 March 22, 2013
GCC 4.7.2 September 20, 2012
GCC 4.5.4 July 2, 2012
GCC 4.7.1 June 14, 2012
GCC 4.7.0 March 22, 2012
GCC 4.4.7 March 13, 2012
GCC 4.6.3 March 1, 2012
GCC 4.6.2 October 26, 2011
GCC 4.6.1 June 27, 2011
GCC 4.3.6 June 27, 2011
GCC 4.5.3 April 28, 2011
GCC 4.4.6 April 16, 2011
GCC 4.6.0 March 25, 2011
GCC 4.5.2 December 16, 2010
GCC 4.4.5 October 1, 2010
GCC 4.5.1 July 31, 2010
GCC 4.3.5 May 22, 2010
GCC 4.4.4 April 29, 2010
GCC 4.5.0 April 14, 2010
GCC 4.4.3 January 21, 2010
GCC 4.4.2 October 15, 2009
GCC 4.3.4 August 4, 2009
GCC 4.4.1 July 22, 2009
GCC 4.4.0 April 21, 2009
GCC 4.3.3 January 24, 2009
GCC 4.3.2 August 27, 2008
GCC 4.3.1 June 6, 2008
GCC 4.2.4 May 19, 2008
GCC 4.3.0 March 5, 2008
GCC 4.2.3 February 1, 2008
GCC 4.2.2 October 7, 2007
GCC 4.2.1 July 18, 2007
GCC 4.2.0 May 13, 2007
GCC 4.1.2 February 13, 2007
GCC 4.0.4 January 31, 2007
GCC 4.1.1 May 24, 2006
GCC 4.0.3 March 10, 2006
GCC 3.4.6 March 06, 2006
GCC 4.1.0 February 28, 2006
GCC 3.4.5 November 30, 2005
GCC 4.0.2 September 28, 2005
GCC 4.0.1 July 7, 2005
GCC 3.4.4 May 18, 2005
GCC 3.3.6 May 3, 2005
GCC 4.0.0 April 20, 2005
GCC 3.4.3 November 4, 2004
GCC 3.3.5 September 30, 2004
GCC 3.4.2 September 6, 2004
GCC 3.4.1 July 1, 2004
GCC 3.3.4 May 31, 2004
GCC 3.4.0 April 18, 2004
GCC 3.3.3 February 14, 2004
GCC 3.3.2 October 17, 2003
GCC 3.3.1 August 8, 2003
GCC 3.3 May 13, 2003
GCC 3.2.3 April 22, 2003
GCC 3.2.2 February 05, 2003
GCC 3.2.1 November 19, 2002
GCC 3.2 August 14, 2002
GCC 3.1.1 July 25, 2002
GCC 3.1 May 15, 2002
GCC 3.0.4 February 20, 2002
GCC 3.0.3 December 20, 2001
GCC 3.0.2 October 25, 2001
GCC 3.0.1 August 20, 2001
GCC 3.0 June 18, 2001
GCC 2.95.3 March 16, 2001
GCC 2.95.2 October 24, 1999
GCC 2.95.1 August 19, 1999
GCC 2.95 July 31, 1999
EGCS 1.1.2 March 15, 1999
EGCS 1.1.1 December 1, 1998
EGCS 1.1 September 3, 1998
EGCS 1.0.3 May 15, 1998
EGCS 1.0.2 March 16, 1998
gcc 2.8.1 March 2, 1998
gcc 2.8.0 January 7, 1998
EGCS 1.0.1 January 6, 1998
EGCS 1.0 December 3, 1997 22, 1997 29, 1997 29, 1996
2.7.2November 26, 1995
2.7.1November 12, 1995
2.7.0June 16, 1995
2.6.3November 30, 1994
2.6.2November 12, 1994
2.6.1November 1, 1994
2.6.0July 14, 1994
2.5.8January 24, 1994
2.5.7December 12, 1993
2.5.6December 3, 1993
2.5.5November 27, 1993
2.5.4November 16, 1993
2.5.3November 11, 1993
2.5.2November 1, 1993
2.5.1October 31, 1993
2.5.0October 22, 1993
2.4.5June 20, 1993
2.4.4June 19, 1993
2.4.3June 1, 1993
2.4.2May 31, 1993
2.4.1May 26, 1993
2.4.0May 17, 1993
2.3.3December 26, 1992
2.3.2November 27, 1992
2.3.1November 1, 1992
2.3October 31, 1992
2.2.2June 14, 1992
2.2.1June 9, 1992
2.2June 8, 1992
2.1March 24, 1992
2.0February 22, 1992
1.42.0 (g++)September 20, 1992
1.42September 20, 1992
1.41August 27, 1992
1.41.0 (g++)July 13, 1992
1.40.3 (g++)October 19, 1991
1.40June 1, 1991
1.39.1 (g++)May 4, 1991
1.39January 16, 1991
1.38December 21, 1990
1.37.1 (g++)March 1, 1990
1.37.0 (g++)February 28, 1990
1.37.1February 21, 1990
1.37February 11, 1990
1.36.4 (g++)January 30, 1990
1.36.3 (g++)January 16, 1990
1.36September 24, 1989
1.35April 26, 1989
1.34February 23, 1989
1.33February 1, 1989
1.32December 21, 1988
1.31November 19, 1988
1.30October 13, 1988
1.29October 6, 1988
1.28September 14, 1988
1.27September 5, 1988
1.26August 18, 1988
1.25August 3, 1988
1.24July 2, 1988
1.23June 26, 1988
1.22May 22, 1988
1.21May 1, 1988
1.20April 19, 1988
1.19March 29, 1988
1.18February 4, 1988
1.17January 9, 1988
1.16December 19, 1987
1.15.3 (g++)December 18, 1987
1.15November 28, 1987
1.14November 6, 1987
1.13October 12, 1987
1.12October 3, 1987
1.11September 5, 1987 (announced late)
1.10August 22, 1987
1.9August 18, 1987 (never announced)
1.8August 10, 1987
1.7July 21, 1987
1.6July 2, 1987
1.5June 18, 1987
1.4June 13, 1987
1.3June 10, 1987
1.2June 1, 1987
1.1May 24, 1987
1.0May 23, 1987
0.9 (first beta release)March 22, 1987

Copyright (C) Free Software Foundation, Inc. Verbatim copying and distribution of this entire article is permitted in any medium, provided this notice is preserved.

Flu Epidemics: 1968-69

This is another flu epidemic that can trace its origins to the Far East. It started in Hong Kong in early 1968. The first cases weren’t detected in the United States until September. In terms of victims, this flu epidemic was mild. Researchers believe deaths may have been limited because the Hong Kong flu virus was similar to the virus that caused the 1957 pandemic. That meant that some people had immunity to it, Hughes said. Still, about 34,000 Americans alone died between September 1968 and March 1969.

Inspiration Served Daily

It’s more than a Nashville landmark. Ryman Auditorium is one of the most active and celebrated venues in modern music. Generations of artists, seekers, creators, rule-breakers and rebels have made their mark on the famous stage. From Elvis to Emmylou Harris, Johnny Cash to Wu-Tang Clan, Paul Simon to Tom Petty, B.B. King to Kings of Leon, the Ryman is a source of inspiration where legendary moments are still in the making.

Tour the One-and-Only Ryman

The unique architecture of the Ryman stems from its history as a church.

Recording your own big hit at the iconic Ryman is easier than you might think. Check out our Air Castle Studio.

History comes alive in our immersive theater where you are surrounded by a living depiction of Music City’s rise.

See our working dressing rooms where artists get ready to take the stage.

Enjoy the view from the same spot where so many legends have created once-in-a-lifetime Ryman moments.

The Ryman is usually the first place I recommend for people from out of town.

It was incredible to see how many artists have graced the stage.

A must see in Nashville. the history here hangs in the air.

If we have a Carnegie Hall, this is it. It's a magnificent place to play.